The New Covenant (Hebrew • ברית חדשה •  berit hadashah (help·info) — Greek • διαθήκη καινή • diatheke kaine) is a concept originally derived from the Hebrew Bible. The term "New Covenant" is used in the Bible (both in the Hebrew Bible and the Greek New Testament) to refer to an epochal relationship of restoration and peace following a period of trial and judgment. It is often thought of as an eschatological messianic age or world to come, and is related to the biblical concept of the kingdom of God. Generally, Christians believe that the epoch of the New Covenant began at the first coming of Jesus, who began his ministry saying "the time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent and believe in the gospel". [3] They believe the New Covenant (along with the concept of the kingdom of God) defines and describes the ongoing relationship between Christian believers and God, and that it will be in full fruition after the second coming of Jesus; that is, it will not only be in full fruition in believing hearts, as now, but in the external world as well. Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant, and that his blood shed at the crucifixion is the required blood of the covenant. As all covenants between God and man described in the Bible, the New Covenant is considered "a bond in blood sovereignly administered by God." [4] The connection between the blood of Jesus and the New Covenant is seen at the Last Supper where Jesus institutes the rite of Communion saying "this cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood". [5] Contents  [hide]  1 Christianity 1.1 Outline 1.2 New Testament texts 1.3 Christian view 1.4 Membership 1.5 Knowledge of God 1.6 Gift of the Spirit 1.7 Kingdom of God 1.8 Christian supersessionism 2 Judaism 2.1 Jewish view 3 See also 4 Notes 5 External links [edit]Christianity  A key text at issue for the Christian concept of the New Covenant is Hebrews 8:8–12 in the New Testament, with an interpretation in the surrounding text:[6] 7For if that first covenant had been faultless, there would have been no occasion to look for a second. 8For he finds fault with them when he says: "Behold, the days are coming, declares the Lord, when I will establish a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, 9not like the covenant that I made with their fathers on the day when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt. For they did not continue in my covenant, and so I showed no concern for them, declares the Lord. 10For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, declares the Lord: I will put my laws into their minds, and write them on their hearts, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. 11And they shall not teach, each one his neighbor and each one his brother, saying, 'Know the Lord,' for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest. 12For I will be merciful toward their iniquities, and I will remember their sins no more." 13In speaking of a new covenant, he makes the first one obsolete. And what is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to vanish away.—Hebrews 8:7–13 That full quotation, with partial quotations of the same text in other New Testament passages, reflects that the authors of the New Testament and Christian leaders generally, consider Jeremiah 31:31–34 to be a central Old Testament prophecy of the New Covenant. Here is the key text: "Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day [that] I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith the LORD: But this [shall be] the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people. And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more."—Jeremiah 31:31–34 The Christian claim is made that there are many other passages that speak about the same New Covenant without using this exact wording. Some passages speak of a "covenant of peace", others use other constructions; some simply say "covenant", but the context may imply that the New Covenant is at issue; and some claim metaphorical descriptions, for example that "Mount Zion" is really a metaphor for the New Covenant. [edit]Outline  This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2011) Based on a general Christian, non-denominational, reading of the text of Jeremiah 31:31–34, the following points are discernible: The New Covenant is established by God himself.[7] The New Covenant is made with the "house of Israel" and the "house of Judah".[8] The New Covenant was not like the broken covenant made with Moses at Mount Sinai. Characteristics of the members of the New Covenant:[9] The law of God is written in their thinking and their affections. The LORD, i.e. YHVH, will be their God, and they will be his people.[10] Every single member of the New Covenant "knows the LORD" in an intimate way.[11] The sins of the members of the New Covenant are forgiven by God, and will never be recalled. [edit]New Testament texts In English translations of the Greek New Testament, the use of the phrase "New Covenant" varies, however, for example, it occurs in the NIV translation at Luke 22:20,[12] 1 Corinthians 11:25,[13] 2 Corinthians 3:6,[14] Hebrews 8:8,[15] Hebrews 9:15,[16] and Hebrews 12:24[17] as a translation of some form of διαθήκη[18] and καινός [19] or νέας.[20] Luke 22:17–20 is disputed, six forms of the text have been identified, for example the Western text-type such as Codex Bezae omit verses 19b–20, see Bruce M. Metzger's Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament for details. [edit]Christian view The Christian view of the New Covenant is a new relationship between God and humans mediated by Jesus which necessarily includes all people,[21] both Jews and Gentiles. The New Covenant also breaks the generational curse of the original sin on all children of Adam if they believe in Jesus Christ, after people are judged for their own sins, which is expected to happen with the second arrival of Jesus Christ (see also Eternal life).[citation needed] Therefore the global missionizing of Jews (see the Gospel according to the Hebrews) or Muslims in the name of Christianity still remains an important pivotal Christian activity. In those days they shall say no more, The fathers have eaten a sour grape, and the children's teeth are set on edge. But every one shall die for his own iniquity: every man that eateth the sour grape, his teeth shall be set on edge. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah:—Jeremiah 31:29–31 KJV[22] Thus as the Apostle Paul advertises that the Old Covenant of Sinai does not in itself prevent Jews from sinning and dying,[23] and is not given to Gentiles at all (with the notable exception of Noahide Law and the rules for proselytes in the Torah), Christians believe the New Covenant ends the original sin and death for everyone who becomes a Christian and cannot simply be a renewal of the Mosaic Covenant since it seemingly accomplishes new things.[24] See also Types of Supersessionism. For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.—(John 3:16, KJV) Also based much on what Paul wrote, a dispensationalist Christian view of the nature of Israel is that it is primarily a spiritual nation composed of Jews who claim Jesus as their Messiah, as well as Gentile believers who through the New Covenant have been grafted into the promises made to Israelites. This spiritual Israel is based on the faith of the patriarch Abraham (before he was circumcised[25]) who was ministered by the Melchizedek priesthood, which is understood to be a type for the Christian faith of believing Jesus to be Christ and Lord in the order of Melchizedek. The Apostle Paul says that "it is not the children of the flesh (i.e. the natural descendants of Abraham), who are the Children of God, but the children of the promise (i.e. the spiritual descendants of Abraham)." Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they [are] not all Israel, which are of Israel: Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, [are they] all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called. That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these [are] not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed.—Romans 9:6–8 KJV[26] [edit]Membership Among Christians, there are significant differences on the question of membership in the New Covenant. These differences can be so serious that they form a principal reason for division i.e., denominationalism. Christian denominations exist because of their answer to this question. The first major split is between those that believe that only believers are members of the New Covenant, and (reflecting the idea of the Jewish covenants as national or community covenants) those that believe that believers and their children[27] are members of the New Covenant; these differences give rise to different views on whether children may be baptised: the credobaptist view and the paedobaptist view. Secondarily, there are differences among paedobaptists as to the nature of the membership of children in the covenant. [edit]Knowledge of God Another difference is between those who believe the New Covenant has already substantially arrived (Preterists), and that this knowledge of God that the member of the New Covenant has is primarily salvific knowledge; and those that believe that the New Covenant has not yet substantially arrived, but will in the Second Coming, and that this knowledge is more complete knowledge, meaning a member of the New Covenant no longer has to be taught anything at all regarding the Christian life (not just that they lack need for exhortation regarding salvific reconciliation with God). This division does not just break down along Jewish v. Christian lines (as the previous difference did). In general, those that are more likely to lean toward the "already view", or salvific knowledge view, are those Christians that do not believe in the indivisible Church (the indivisible Church is a belief of Catholics and Orthodox) and Christians that practice believer baptism, because both believe the New Covenant is more present reality than future reality. Also in general, those that lean toward the "not yet view", or complete knowledge view, practice infant baptism for covenantal reasons, and dispensationalistic Christians (even though they tend to practice believer baptism), because they believe the New Covenant is more future reality than present reality. [edit]Gift of the Spirit Main article: Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit When the Lord had established the Covenant, He sealed the benefits to His followers by baptism. The New Covenant is accomplished by the pouring of the Spirit in man (Isaiah 59:21).[28] This is called the gift of the spirit (Acts 2:38). The following verse (Acts 2:39) seems to cite a neglected source describing the New Covenant as the gift of the prophetic Spirit.[29] John the Baptist said Jesus would baptize with holy spirit (Matthew 3:11).[30] To be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ is a spiritual baptism where the person is immersed with holy spirit from God (John 14:17).[31] According to some interpretations, there are nine manifestations of the gift of holy spirit: word of wisdom, word of knowledge, faith, gifts of healings, working of miracles, prophecy, discerning of spirits, kinds of tongues, interpretation of tongues.[32] Metaphorically, fruit of the spirit is listed in Galatians 5:22, love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, and temperance.[33] The Holy Spirit cannot be seen by the five senses being in substance as immaterial,[34] but the fruit of it can be seen in the Christian’s life. The believer is re-created after the image of God and loves God and can therefore love his brother.[35] The requirement of the Law can be fulfilled according to the Spirit (Romans 8:4). The Law of God can be carved in the human mind through the Spirit (Ezekiel 36:26–27). The man then delights in the Law of God after the inward man (Romans 7:22). He is re-made after the pattern of Christ who had no sin and could say, "yea, thy law is within my heart" (Psalm 40:8).[36] [edit]Kingdom of God  This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2011) The New Covenant and the Kingdom of God are two very related concepts. So much so, that they are often considered interchangeable synonyms. While Jesus was much more likely to refer to the Kingdom of God (perhaps his favorite topic, as understood from the New Testament), he was not unknown to refer to the New Covenant. In the following passage reported by Luke, Jesus uses both terms to refer to the very same upcoming event, his death and resurrection, being represented in the Last Supper. And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him. And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer: For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide [it] among yourselves: For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come. And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake [it], and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me. Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup [is] the new testament [i.e. new covenant] in my blood, which is shed for you. But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me [is] with me on the table. And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined: but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed! And they began to enquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing.—Luke 22:14–23 KJV[37] John the Evangelist recorded Jesus as saying: Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.—John 18:36 KJV Luke the Evangelist recorded Jesus as saying: And when he was demanded of the Pharisees, when the kingdom of God should come, he answered them and said, The kingdom of God cometh not with observation: Neither shall they say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the kingdom of God is within you.—Luke 17:20–21 KJV [edit]Christian supersessionism Main article: Supersessionism Christian supersessionism claims the abrogation of Old Covenant laws by Christian New Covenant laws of faith in Christ. It is the idea that a New Covenant of the trinitarian God with the Christians and the Christian Church replaces, fulfills or completes God's covenant with the Children of Israel and B'nei Noah. Writers who reject the notion of supersessionism include Michael J. Vlach,[38] Walter Brueggemann,[39] Roland Edmund Murphy,[40] Jacques B. Doukhan.[41] [edit]Judaism    Moses Speaks to the Children of Israel (illustration from Hartwell James's The Boys of the Bible) The only reference in the Hebrew Bible that uses the wording "new covenant" is found in the Book of Jeremiah, Chapters 30–33 (God's promise of restoration), Chapter 31, Line 31: “	³¹Behold, days are coming—the word of HASHEM—when I will seal a new covenant with the House of Israel and with the House of Judah: ³²not like the covenant that I sealed with their forefathers on the day that I took hold of their hand to take them out of the land of Egypt, for they abrogated My covenant, although I became their Master—the word of HASHEM. ³³For this is the covenant that I shall seal with the House of Israel after those days—the word of HASHEM—I will place My Torah within them and I will write it onto their heart; I will be a God for them and they will be a people for Me. ³⁴They will no longer teach—each man his fellow, each man his brother—saying, 'Know HASHEM!' For all of them will know Me, from their smallest to their greatest—the word of HASHEM—when I will forgive their iniquity and will no longer recall their sin.	”  This prophet's word refers to the Messianic Age to come (or World to Come), in which the eternal Mosaic covenant with Israel will be confirmed. Of this Mosaic covenant between God and Israel the Shabbat is declared to be the sign forever (Exodus 31:13–17).[42] Jewish law gives Shabbat the status of being the most important holy day in the Jewish calendar for God was the first to observe it with the cessation of Creation (Genesis 2:1–3) and Judaism accords Shabbat the status of an all joyous holy day. The Tanach describes Shabbat as having the purpose as a "taste" of Olam Haba (the World to Come, the Hereafter) following the Messianic Age (the End of Days). [edit]Jewish view The Jewish view of the mere wording "new covenant" is no more than a renewed national commitment to abide by God's laws. In this view, the word new does not refer to commitment that replaces a previous one, but rather to an additional and greater level of commitment.[43] Because Jews view the Mosaic covenant as applying only to Jews and any New Covenant merely a strengthening of the already existing one, Jews do not see this phrase as relevant in any way to non-Jews. For non-Jews, Judaism advocates the pre-Sinaitic Seven Laws of Noah. "Unlike Christianity, Judaism does not deny salvation to those outside of its fold, for, according to Jewish law, all non-Jews who observe the Noahide laws will participate in salvation and in the rewards of the world to come".[44] In his famous 1962 work The Prophets Abraham Joshua Heschel points out that Prophecy is not the only instrument of God to change the hearts of Israel, to know that he is God. He tells how the prophet Jeremiah complains that Israel is circumcised in body but "uncircumcised in heart" (9:26), that Jeremiah says "wash your heart from wickedness" (4:14). Heschel analyses that, while the prophet can only give Israel a new word, it is God himself who will give man a new heart: The "new covenant" will accomplish the complete transformation of every individual.[45] Compare with: I will give them an undivided heart and I will place a new spirit in them; I will remove the heart of stone from their flesh and give them a heart of flesh. ²°so that they may walk in My decrees and observe My laws and fulfill them. Then they will be a people unto Me, and I will be a God for them.|The 1996 Stone Edition Tanach by Mesorah Publications, Ezekiel 11:19–20. I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh .. ³²Not for your sake do I act—the word of the Lord HASHEM/ELOHIM—let this be known to you! Be embarrassed and ashamed of your ways, O House of Israel!|The 1996 Stone Edition Tanach by Mesorah Publications, Ezekiel 36:26 + 32. The article Jewish Encyclopedia: New Testament states: "The idea of the new covenant is based chiefly upon Jeremiah 31:31–34 (comp. Hebrews 8:6–13, 10:16). That the prophet's words do not imply an abrogation of the Law is evidenced by his emphatic declaration of the immutability of the covenant with Israel (Jeremiah 31:35–36; comp. 33:25); he obviously looked for a renewal of the Law through a regeneration of the hearts of the people." It is mentioned several times in the Mishna and Talmud, and had been used extensively in kabbalistic literature due to the Gematria value of 135 (number of occurrences in Tanakh) being equal to the word HaSinai (הסיני) in Genesis 10:17. Brit also has the numeric value of 612, which is suggested by some to mean that it is the 'first' mitzvah which is true for the Jewish life cycle. The other use is in relationship to the merit of Ruth being an ancestor to King David, with the name again having same gematria as Brit, linking Davidic covenant with that of all previous, since Ruth was a Moabite by birth, and related to Noah also. [edit]See also  Gospel harmony Old Testament#Christian view of the Law New Testament#The history of translation and usage of the term New Testament Expounding of the Law New Wine into Old Wineskins Christian nonviolence Christian Torah-submission Jewish Christians Jewish Messiah Christianity and Judaism Christian Zionism Pauline Christianity The Law of Christ New Covenant Theology [edit]Notes  ^ "Hebrews 8:6". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2011-03-12. ^ See also Antithesis of the Law. ^ "Mark 1:15". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2011-09-24. ^ This definition of covenant is from O. Palmer Robertson's book The Christ of the Covenants. It has become an accepted definition among modern scholars. See this critical review of his book by Dr. C. Matthew McMahon. ^ "Luke 22:20". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2011-09-24. ^ "Hebrews 8:8–12". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2010-11-19. ^ The New Covenant is clearly a future event from the point of view of the prophet Jeremiah. Judaism still ascribes it to the future. Christianity ascribes at least its inauguration to the time of Jesus, particularly ten days after his Ascension on the Day of Pentecost, Acts 2:1–42. ^ Understanding who is a member of the "house of Israel" is at the core of the difference between a Jewish and a Christian understanding of this prophecy. See Different Views of the New Covenant. ^ These characteristics of the New Covenant's members are the content of the covenant. The New Covenant is changed hearts and minds, etc. ^ A four-letter word, Y (yodh) H (heh) V (vav) H (heh), is the covenantal name of the God of the Bible. It is a Hebrew word. The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, translates YHVH as kurios, which means Lord in English. The New Testament does the same. The New Testament also ascribes the name to Jesus, who most Christians believe is YHVH incarnate. See Romans 10:5-13, where the name YHVH from the quoted passage in Joel 2:32 (quoted in Romans 10:13) is equated with Jesus Christ. ^ Why "intimate" knowledge? Even beyond a word-study of the Hebrew word translated "know" (which does suggest intimate knowledge, see also Strong's H03045), simple context of this very passage shows that the knowledge in reference cannot be bare knowledge of God's existence, or something similar. To "know" God in Jeremiah (as in all the prophets) is primarily about obedience to him in the covenant (e.g. Jer. 22:16). So, again, the new covenant is a promise of covenantal fidelity: the very thing lacking among the people in the view of the prophet Jeremiah. ^ Luke 22:20 ^ 1 Corinthians 11:25 ^ 2 Corinthians 3:6 ^ Hebrews 8:8 ^ 9:15 ^ 12:24 ^ "Strong's G1242". Blueletterbible.org. Retrieved 2010-11-19. ^ "Strong's G2537". Blueletterbible.org. Retrieved 2010-11-19. ^ "Strong's G3501". Blueletterbible.org. Retrieved 2010-11-19. ^ New Covenant (Ezekiel 47:21–23; Isaiah 2:1–4; 11:10; 56:1-8; Micah 4:1–5) ^ Scripture quotations marked "KJV" are taken from The Holy Bible, King James Version. Blue Letter Bible. ^ "Romans". Wcg.org. Retrieved 2010-11-19. ^ "Unlike Christianity, Judaism does not deny salvation to those outside of its fold, for, according to Jewish law, all non-Jews who observe the Noahide laws will participate in salvation and in the revards of the world to come". H. Revel, Universal Jewish Encyclopedia; Universal Jewish Encyclopedia Inc., New York, 1939–1943, pp. 227–228. ^ Romans 4:9–12 ^ Scripture quotations marked "KJV" are taken from The Holy Bible, King James Version. Blue Letter Bible. ^ The reference here is to children that have not themselves made a profession of Christian faith. For those that hold the paedobaptist view, the reception of believers' children into the covenant, via baptism, typically happens before the child is even able to express faith (usually as an infant, hence the name). ^ J.D. Douglas, M.A., B.d., S.T.M., Ph.D. (1962). The New Bible Dictionary, p.132. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan ISBN 0-8028-2282-7 ^ "'This Is My Covenant with Them': Isaiah 59.19–21 as the Programmatic Prophecy of the New Covenant in the Acts of the Apostles". Journal of Pentecostal Theology 17 (2008), 32–47 and 219–237. ^ J.D. Douglas, M.A., B.d., S.T.M., Ph.D. (1962). The New Bible Dictionary, p.131. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan ISBN 0-8028-2282-7 ^ E.W. Bullinger, (1980). How To Enjoy The Bible, p. 129. Samuel Bagster & Sons. London. ISBN 0851502008. ^ B.G. Leonard, Gifts of the Spirit, p.13 ^ J.D. Douglas, M.A., B.d., S.T.M., Ph.D. (1962). The New Bible Dictionary, p.442. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan. ISBN 0-8028-2282-7. ^ J.D. Douglas, M.A., B.d., S.T.M., Ph.D. (1962). The New Bible Dictionary, p.1212. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan ISBN 0-8028-2282-7 ^ J.D. Douglas, M.A., B.d., S.T.M., Ph.D. (1962). The New Bible Dictionary, p.723. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan ISBN 0-8028-2282-7 ^ J.D. Douglas, M.A., B.d., S.T.M., Ph.D. (1962). The New Bible Dictionary, p.723. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan ISBN 0-8028-2282-7 ^ Scripture quotations marked "KJV" are taken from The Holy Bible, King James Version. Blue Letter Bible[1]. ^ Has the Church Replaced Israel?: A Theological Evaluation (B&H Publishing Group 2010 ISBN 978-0-8054-4972-3), p. 164 ^ An Introduction to the Old Testament: the Canon and Christian Imagination (Westminster John Knox Press 2003 ISBN 978-0-664-22412-7), p. 189 and The Theology of the Book of Jeremiah(Cambridge University Press 2007 ISBN 9780521844543), p. 191 ^ 101 Questions & Answers on the Biblical Torah: Reflections on the Pentateuch (Paulist Press 1996 ISBN 0-8091-4252-X), p. 110 ^ The Mystery of Israel (Review and Herald Publishing Association 2004 ISBN 978-0-8280-1772-5) ^ JewishEncyclopedia.com - COVENANT "Eternal as the covenant with heaven and earth is God's covenant with the seed of Jacob (Jer. xxxiii. 25 et seq.). Christianity, however, interpreted the words of the prophet in such a way as to indicate a new religious dispensation in place of the law of Moses (Heb. viii. 8–13)." ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: New Testament: "The idea of the new covenant is based chiefly upon Jer. xxxi. 31–34 (comp. Heb. viii. 6–13, x. 16). That the prophet's words do not imply an abrogation of the Law is evidenced by his emphatic declaration of the immutability of the covenant with Israel (Jer 31:35–36; comp. 33:25); he obviously looked for a renewal of the Law through a regeneration of the hearts of the people." ^ The Torah, W. G. Plaut, Union of American Hebrew Congregations, New York, 1981; p. 71. ^ Abraham J. Heschel: The Prophets; Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 2001; p.162ff. [edit]External links  What Is The New Covenant Of Jesus Christ - Author looks closely at what it meant for Jesus to have instituted the New Covenant - http://WhatIsTheNewCovenant.1hwy.com/index.html Catholic Encyclopedia: Epistle to the Hebrews: "... the Epistle opens with the solemn announcement of the superiority of the New Testament Revelation by the Son over Old Testament Revelation by the prophets (Hebrews 1:1-4). It then proves and explains from the Scriptures the superiority of this New Covenant over the Old by the comparison of the Son with the angels as mediators of the Old Covenant (1:5-2:18), with Moses and Josue as the founders of the Old Covenant (3:1-4:16), and, finally, by opposing the high-priesthood of Christ after the order of Melchisedech to the Levitical priesthood after the order of Aaron (5:1-10:18)." Jewish Encyclopedia: Covenant: The Old and the New Covenant The New Covenant: Does It Abolish God's Laws? New Covenant Collection Articles by Ray Stedman

B’rit Hadasha

Matthew מתיו

Mark סמן

Luke לוק

John יוחנן

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