Judaism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Redirected from Jewish) This article is about the Jewish religion. For consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity, see Jews.    Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar, and etrog box Part of a series on 		 Judaism Portal | Category Jewish religious movements Orthodox (Haredi · Hasidic · Modern) Conservative · Reform Karaite · Reconstructionist · Renewal · Humanistic Jewish philosophy Principles of faith · Kabbalah · Messiah · Ethics Chosenness · Names of God · Musar Religious texts Tanakh (Torah · Nevi'im · Ketuvim) Ḥumash · Siddur · Piyutim · Zohar Rabbinic literature (Talmud · Midrash · Tosefta) Religious Law Mishneh Torah · Tur Shulchan Aruch · Mishnah Berurah Kashrut · Tzniut · Tzedakah · Niddah · Noahide laws Holy cities Jerusalem · Safed · Hebron · Tiberias Important figures Abraham · Isaac · Jacob Moses · Aaron · David · Solomon Sarah · Rebecca · Rachel  · Leah Jewish life cycle Brit · Pidyon haben · Bar/Bat Mitzvah Marriage · Bereavement Rabbinic Sages Chazal (Tannaim · Amoraim · Savoraim) Geonim · Rishonim · Acharonim Religious Roles Rabbi · Rebbe · Posek · Hazzan/Cantor Dayan · Rosh yeshiva · Mohel · Kohen/Priest Religious buildings & institutions Synagogue · Beth midrash · Mikveh Sukkah · Chevra kadisha Holy Temple / Tabernacle Jewish education Yeshiva · Kollel · Cheder Religious articles Sefer Torah · Tallit · Tefillin · Tzitzit · Kippah Mezuzah · Hanukiah/Menorah · Shofar 4 Species · Kittel · Gartel Jewish prayers and services Shema · Amidah · Aleinu · Kaddish · Minyan Birkat Hamazon · Shehecheyanu · Hallel Havdalah · Tachanun · Kol Nidre · Selichot Judaism & other religions Christianity · Islam · Judeo-Christian Abrahamic faiths · Pluralism · Others Related topics Antisemitism · Criticism · Holocaust · Israel · Zionism v t e Judaism (from the Latin Iudaismus, derived from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, and ultimately from the Hebrew יהודה, Yehudah, "Judah";[1][2] in Hebrew: יַהֲדוּת, Yahedut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos[3]) is the religion, philosophy, and way of life of the Jewish people.[4] A monotheistic religion originating in the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Tanakh) and explored in later texts such as the Talmud, Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship God developed with the Children of Israel.[5] Rabbinic Judaism holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah.[6] This assertion was historically challenged by the Karaites, a movement that flourished in the medieval period, which retains several thousand followers today and maintains that only the Written Torah was revealed.[7] In modern times, liberal movements such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic.[8] Judaism claims a historical continuity spanning more than 3,000 years. It is one of the oldest monotheistic religions,[9] and the oldest to survive into the present day.[10] The Hebrews / Israelites were already referred to as "Jews" in later books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther, with the term Jews replacing the title "Children of Israel".[11] Judaism's texts, traditions and values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity, Islam and the Baha'i Faith.[12][13] Many aspects of Judaism have also directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law.[14] Jews are an ethnoreligious group[15] and include those born Jewish and converts to Judaism. In 2010, the world Jewish population was estimated at 13.4 million, or roughly 0.2% of the total world population. About 42% of all Jews reside in Israel and about 42% reside in the United States and Canada, with most of the remainder living in Europe.[16] The largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism (Hareidi Judaism and Modern Orthodox Judaism), Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism. A major source of difference between these groups is their approach to Jewish law.[17] Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin, eternal and unalterable, and that they should be strictly followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more "traditional" interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews.[18][19] Historically, special courts enforced Jewish law; today, these courts still exist but the practice of Judaism is mostly voluntary.[20] Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, but in the sacred texts and rabbis and scholars who interpret them.[21] Contents  [hide]  1 Defining character and principles of faith 1.1 Defining character 1.2 Core tenets 2 Jewish religious texts 2.1 Jewish legal literature 2.2 Jewish philosophy 2.3 Rabbinic hermeneutics 3 Jewish identity 3.1 Origin of the term "Judaism" 3.2 Distinction between Jews as a people and Judaism 3.3 Who is a Jew? 3.4 Jewish demographics 4 Jewish religious movements 4.1 Rabbinic Judaism 4.1.1 Jewish movements in Israel 4.2 Alternative Judaism 5 Jewish observances 5.1 Jewish ethics 5.2 Prayers 5.3 Religious clothing 5.4 Jewish holidays 5.4.1 Shabbat 5.4.2 Three pilgrimage festivals 5.4.3 High Holy Days 5.4.4 Purim 5.4.5 Hanukkah 5.4.6 Other holidays 5.5 Torah readings 5.6 Synagogues and religious buildings 5.7 Dietary laws: kashrut 5.8 Laws of ritual purity 5.8.1 Family purity 5.9 Life-cycle events 6 Community leadership 6.1 Classical priesthood 6.2 Prayer leaders 6.3 Specialized religious roles 7 History 7.1 Origins 7.2 Antiquity 7.3 Historical Jewish groupings (to 1700) 7.4 Persecutions 7.5 Hasidism 7.6 The Enlightenment and new religious movements 7.7 Spectrum of observance 8 Judaism and other religions 8.1 Christianity and Judaism 8.2 Islam and Judaism 8.3 Syncretic movements incorporating Judaism 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links Defining character and principles of faith  Defining character   Glass platter inscribed with the Hebrew word zakhreinu - remember us Unlike other ancient Near Eastern gods, the Hebrew God is portrayed as unitary and solitary; consequently, the Hebrew God's principal relationships are not with other gods, but with the world, and more specifically, with the people He created.[22] Judaism thus begins with an ethical monotheism: the belief that God is one, and concerned with the actions of humankind.[23] According to the Hebrew Bible, God promised Abraham to make of his offspring a great nation.[24] Many generations later, he commanded the nation of Israel to love and worship only one God; that is, the Jewish nation is to reciprocate God's concern for the world.[25] He also commanded the Jewish people to love one another; that is, Jews are to imitate God's love for people.[26] These commandments are but two of a large corpus of commandments and laws that constitute this covenant, which is the substance of Judaism. Thus, although there is an esoteric tradition in Judaism (Kabbalah), Rabbinic scholar Max Kadushin has characterized normative Judaism as "normal mysticism", because it involves every-day personal experiences of God through ways or modes that are common to all Jews.[27] This is played out through the observance of the halakhot and given verbal expression in the Birkat Ha-Mizvot, the short blessings that are spoken every time a positive commandment is to be fulfilled. The ordinary, familiar, everyday things and occurrences, we have constitute occasions for the experience of God. Such things as one's daily sustenance, the very day itself, are felt as manifestations of God's loving-kindness, calling for the Berakhot. Kedushah, holiness, which is nothing else than the imitation of God, is concerned with daily conduct, with being gracious and merciful, with keeping oneself from defilement by idolatry, adultery, and the shedding of blood. The Birkat Ha-Mitzwot evokes the consciousness of holiness at a rabbinic rite, but the objects employed in the majority of these rites are non-holy and of general character, while the several holy objects are non-theurgic. And not only do ordinary things and occurrences bring with them the experience of God. Everything that happens to a man evokes that experience, evil as well as good, for a Berakah is said also at evil tidings. Hence, although the experience of God is like none other, the occasions for experiencing Him, for having a consciousness of Him, are manifold, even if we consider only those that call for Berakot.[28] Whereas Jewish philosophers often debate whether God is immanent or transcendent, and whether people have free will or their lives are determined, Halakha is a system through which any Jew acts to bring God into the world. Ethical monotheism is central in all sacred or normative texts of Judaism. However, monotheism has not always been followed in practice. The Jewish Bible (Tanakh) records and repeatedly condemns the widespread worship of other gods in ancient Israel.[29] In the Greco-Roman era, many different interpretations of monotheism existed in Judaism, including the interpretations that gave rise to Christianity.[30] Moreover, as a non-creedal religion, some have argued that Judaism does not require one to believe in God. For some, observance of Jewish law is more important than belief in God per se.[31] In modern times, some liberal Jewish movements do not accept the existence of a personified deity active in history.[32] Core tenets Main article: Jewish principles of faith 13 Principles of Faith: I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is the Creator and Guide of everything that has been created; He alone has made, does make, and will make all things. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is One, and that there is no unity in any manner like His, and that He alone is our God, who was, and is, and will be. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, has no body, and that He is free from all the properties of matter, and that there can be no (physical) comparison to Him whatsoever. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is the first and the last. I believe with perfect faith that to the Creator, Blessed be His Name, and to Him alone, it is right to pray, and that it is not right to pray to any being besides Him. I believe with perfect faith that all the words of the prophets are true. I believe with perfect faith that the prophecy of Moses our teacher, peace be upon him, was true, and that he was the chief of the prophets, both those who preceded him and those who followed him. I believe with perfect faith that the entire Torah that is now in our possession is the same that was given to Moses our teacher, peace be upon him. I believe with perfect faith that this Torah will not be exchanged, and that there will never be any other Torah from the Creator, Blessed be His Name. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, knows all the deeds of human beings and all their thoughts, as it is written, "Who fashioned the hearts of them all, Who comprehends all their actions" (Psalms 33:15). I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, rewards those who keep His commandments and punishes those that transgress them. I believe with perfect faith in the coming of the Messiah; and even though he may tarry, nonetheless, I wait every day for his coming. I believe with perfect faith that there will be a revival of the dead at the time when it shall please the Creator, Blessed be His name, and His mention shall be exalted for ever and ever. -Maimonides Scholars throughout Jewish history have proposed numerous formulations of Judaism's core tenets, all of which have met with criticism.[33] The most popular formulation is Maimonides' thirteen principles of faith, developed in the 12th century. According to Maimonides, any Jew who rejects even one of these principles would be considered an apostate and a heretic.[34][35] Jewish scholars have held points of view diverging in various ways from Maimonides' principles.[36][37] In Maimonides' time, his list of tenets was criticized by Hasdai Crescas and Joseph Albo. Albo and the Raavad argued that Maimonides' principles contained too many items that, while true, were not fundamentals of the faith. Along these lines, the ancient historian Josephus emphasized practices and observances rather than religious beliefs, associating apostasy with a failure to observe Jewish law and maintaining that the requirements for conversion to Judaism included circumcision and adherence to traditional customs. Maimonides' principles were largely ignored over the next few centuries.[38] Later, two poetic restatements of these principles ("Ani Ma'amin" and "Yigdal") became integrated into many Jewish liturgies,[39][citation needed] leading to their eventual near-universal acceptance.[40][41] In modern times, Judaism lacks a centralized authority that would dictate an exact religious dogma.[21][42] Because of this, many different variations on the basic beliefs are considered within the scope of Judaism.[36] Even so, all Jewish religious movements are, to a greater or lesser extent, based on the principles of the Hebrew Bible and various commentaries such as the Talmud and Midrash. Judaism also universally recognizes the Biblical Covenant between God and the Patriarch Abraham as well as the additional aspects of the Covenant revealed to Moses, who is considered Judaism's greatest prophet.[36][43][44][45][46] In the Mishnah, a core text of Rabbinic Judaism, acceptance of the Divine origins of this covenant is considered an essential aspect of Judaism and those who reject the Covenant forfeit their share in the World to Come.[47] Jewish religious texts  The following is a basic, structured list of the central works of Jewish practice and thought. Tanakh[48] (Hebrew Bible) and Rabbinic literature Mesorah Targum Jewish Biblical exegesis (also see Midrash below) Works of the Talmudic Era (classic rabbinic literature) Mishnah and commentaries Tosefta and the minor tractates Talmud: The Babylonian Talmud and commentaries Jerusalem Talmud and commentaries Midrashic literature: Halakhic Midrash Aggadic Midrash Halakhic literature Major Codes of Jewish Law and Custom Mishneh Torah and commentaries Tur and commentaries Shulchan Aruch and commentaries Responsa literature Jewish Thought and Ethics Jewish philosophy Kabbalah Hasidic works Musar literature and other works of Jewish ethics Siddur and Jewish liturgy Piyyut (Classical Jewish poetry) Jewish legal literature Main article: Halakha The basis of Jewish law and tradition (halakha) is the Torah (also known as the Pentateuch or the Five Books of Moses). According to rabbinic tradition there are 613 commandments in the Torah. Some of these laws are directed only to men or to women, some only to the ancient priestly groups, the Kohanim and Leviyim (members of the tribe of Levi), some only to farmers within the Land of Israel. Many laws were only applicable when the Temple in Jerusalem existed, and fewer than 300 of these commandments are still applicable today. While there have been Jewish groups whose beliefs were claimed to be based on the written text of the Torah alone (e.g., the Sadducees, and the Karaites), most Jews believed in what they call the oral law. These oral traditions were transmitted by the Pharisee sect of ancient Judaism, and were later recorded in written form and expanded upon by the rabbis. Rabbinic Judaism (which derives from the Pharisees) has always held that the books of the Torah (called the written law) have always been transmitted in parallel with an oral tradition. To justify this viewpoint, Jews point to the text of the Torah, where many words are left undefined, and many procedures mentioned without explanation or instructions; this, they argue, means that the reader is assumed to be familiar with the details from other, i.e., oral, sources. This parallel set of material was originally transmitted orally, and came to be known as "the oral law". By the time of Rabbi Judah haNasi (200 CE), after the destruction of Jerusalem, much of this material was edited together into the Mishnah. Over the next four centuries this law underwent discussion and debate in both of the world's major Jewish communities (in Israel and Babylonia), and the commentaries on the Mishnah from each of these communities eventually came to be edited together into compilations known as the two Talmuds. These have been expounded by commentaries of various Torah scholars during the ages. Halakha, the rabbinic Jewish way of life, then, is based on a combined reading of the Torah, and the oral tradition - the Mishnah, the halakhic Midrash, the Talmud and its commentaries. The Halakha has developed slowly, through a precedent-based system. The literature of questions to rabbis, and their considered answers, is referred to as responsa (in Hebrew, Sheelot U-Teshuvot.) Over time, as practices develop, codes of Jewish law are written that are based on the responsa; the most important code, the Shulchan Aruch, largely determines Orthodox religious practice today. Jewish philosophy Main article: Jewish philosophy Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. Major Jewish philosophers include Solomon ibn Gabirol, Saadia Gaon, Judah Halevi, Maimonides, and Gersonides. Major changes occurred in response to the Enlightenment (late 18th to early 19th century) leading to the post-Enlightenment Jewish philosophers. Modern Jewish philosophy consists of both Orthodox and non-Orthodox oriented philosophy. Notable among Orthodox Jewish philosophers are Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler, Joseph B. Soloveitchik, and Yitzchok Hutner. Well-known non-Orthodox Jewish philosophers include Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, Mordecai Kaplan, Abraham Joshua Heschel, Will Herberg, and Emmanuel Lévinas. Related Topics Torah databases (electronic versions of the Traditional Jewish Bookshelf) List of Jewish prayers and blessings Rabbinic hermeneutics 13 Principles of Hermeneutics: A law that operates under certain conditions will surely be operative in other situations where the same conditions are present in a more acute form A law operating in one situation will also be operative in another situation, if the text characterizes both situations in identical terms. A law that clearly expresses the purpose it was meant to serve will also apply to other situations where the identical purpose may be served. When a general rule is followed by illustrative particulars, only those particulars are to be embraced by it. A law that begins with specifying particular cases, and then proceeds to an all-embracing generalization, is to be applied to particulars cases not specified but logically falling into the same generalization. A law that begins with a generalization as to its intended applications, then continues with the specification of particular cases, and then concludes with a restatement of the generalization, can be applied only to the particular cases specified. The rules about a generalization being followed or preceded by specifying particulars (rules 4 and 5) will not apply if it is apparent that the specification of the particular cases or the statement of the generalization is meant purely for achieving a greater clarity of language. A particular case already covered in a generalization that is nevertheless treated separately suggests that the same particularized treatment be applied to all other cases which are covered in that generalization. A penalty specified for a general category of wrong-doing is not to be automatically applied to a particular case that is withdrawn from the general rule to be specifically prohibited, but without any mention of the penalty. A general prohibition followed by a specified penalty may be followed by a particular case, normally included in the generalization, with a modification in penalty, either toward easing it or making it more severe. A case logically falling into a general law but treated separately remains outside the provisions of the general law except in those instances where it is specifically included in them. Obscurities in Biblical texts may be cleared up from the immediate context or from subsequently occurring passages Contradictions in Biblical passages may be removed through the mediation of other passages. -R. Ishmael[49] Orthodox and many other Jews do not believe that the revealed Torah consists solely of its written contents, but of its interpretations as well. The study of Torah (in its widest sense, to include both poetry, narrative, and law, and both the Hebrew Bible and the Talmud) is in Judaism itself a sacred act of central importance. For the sages of the Mishnah and Talmud, and for their successors today, the study of Torah was therefore not merely a means to learn the contents of God's revelation, but an end in itself. According to the Talmud, These are the things for which a person enjoys the dividends in this world while the principal remains for the person to enjoy in the world to come; they are: honoring parents, loving deeds of kindness, and making peace between one person and another. But the study of the Torah is equal to them all. (Talmud Shabbat 127a). In Judaism, "the study of Torah can be a means of experiencing God".[50] Reflecting on the contribution of the Amoraim and Tanaim to contemporary Judaism, Professor Jacob Neusner observed: The rabbi's logical and rational inquiry is not mere logic-chopping. It is a most serious and substantive effort to locate in trivialities the fundamental principles of the revealed will of God to guide and sanctify the most specific and concrete actions in the workaday world .... Here is the mystery of Talmudic Judaism: the alien and remote conviction that the intellect is an instrument not of unbelief and desacralization but of sanctification."[51] To study the Written Torah and the Oral Torah in light of each other is thus also to study how to study the word of God. In the study of Torah, the sages formulated and followed various logical and hermeneutical principles. According to David Stern, all Rabbinic hermeneutics rest on two basic axioms: first, the belief in the omnisignificance of Scripture, in the meaningfulness of its every word, letter, even (according to one famous report) scribal flourish; second, the claim of the essential unity of Scripture as the expression of the single divine will.[52] These two principles make possible a great variety of interpretations. According to the Talmud, A single verse has several meanings, but no two verses hold the same meaning. It was taught in the school of R. Ishmael: 'Behold, My word is like fire—declares the Lord—and like a hammer that shatters rock' (Jer 23:29). Just as this hammer produces many sparks (when it strikes the rock), so a single verse has several meanings." (Talmud Sanhedrin 34a). Observant Jews thus view the Torah as dynamic, because it contains within it a host of interpretations[53] According to Rabbinic tradition, all valid interpretations of the written Torah were revealed to Moses at Sinai in oral form, and handed down from teacher to pupil (The oral revelation is in effect coextensive with the Talmud itself). When different rabbis forwarded conflicting interpretations, they sometimes appealed to hermeneutic principles to legitimize their arguments; some rabbis claim that these principles were themselves revealed by God to Moses at Sinai.[54] Thus, Hillel called attention to seven commonly used in the interpretation of laws (baraita at the beginning of Sifra); R. Ishmael, thirteen (baraita at the beginning of Sifra; this collection is largely an amplification of that of Hillel).[55] Eliezer b. Jose ha-Gelili listed 32, largely used for the exegesis of narrative elements of Torah. All the hermeneutic rules scattered through the Talmudim and Midrashim have been collected by Malbim in Ayyelet ha-Shachar, the introduction to his commentary on the Sifra. Nevertheless, R. Ishmael's 13 principles are perhaps the ones most widely known; they constitute an important, and one of Judaism's earliest, contributions to logic, hermeneutics, and jurisprudence.[56] Judah Hadassi incorporated Ishmael's principles into Karaite Judaism in the 12th century.[57] Today R. Ishmael's 13 principles are incorporated into the Jewish prayer book to be read by observant Jews on a daily basis.[58][59][60][61] Jewish identity  Origin of the term "Judaism" The term Judaism derives from the Latin Iudaismus, derived from the Greek Ιουδαϊσμός Ioudaïsmos, and ultimately from the Hebrew יהודה, Yehudah, "Judah";[62][63] in Hebrew: יַהֲדוּת, Yahadut. It first appears as the Hellenistic Greek iudaismos in 2nd Maccabees in the 2nd century BCE. In the context of the age and period it held the meaning of seeking or forming part of a cultural entity, that of iudea, the Greek derivative of Persian Yehud, and can be compared with hellenismos, meaning acceptance of Hellenic cultural norms (the conflict between iudaismos and hellenismos lay behind the Maccabeean revolt and hence the invention of the term iudaismos).[64] The earliest instance of the term in English, used to mean "the profession or practice of the Jewish religion; the religious system or polity of the Jews", is Robert Fabyan's The newe cronycles of Englande and of Fraunce a 1513. As an English translation of the Latin, the first instance in English is a 1611 translation of the Apocrypha(Deuterocanon in Catholic and Orthodox Christianity), 2 Macc. ii. 21 "Those that behaved themselues manfully to their honour for Iudaisme."[65] Distinction between Jews as a people and Judaism According to Daniel Boyarin, the underlying distinction between religion and ethnicity is foreign to Judaism itself, and is one form of the dualism between spirit and flesh that has its origin in Platonic philosophy and that permeated Hellenistic Judaism.[66] Consequently, in his view, Judaism does not fit easily into conventional Western categories, such as religion, ethnicity, or culture. Boyarin suggests that this in part reflects the fact that much of Judaism's more than 3,000-year history predates the rise of Western culture and occurred outside the West (that is, Europe, particularly medieval and modern Europe). During this time, Jews have experienced slavery, anarchic and theocratic self-government, conquest, occupation, and exile; in the Diasporas, they have been in contact with and have been influenced by ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Persian, and Hellenic cultures, as well as modern movements such as the Enlightenment (see Haskalah) and the rise of nationalism, which would bear fruit in the form of a Jewish state in the Levant. They also saw an elite convert to Judaism (the Khazars), only to disappear as the centers of power in the lands once occupied by that elite fell to the people of Rus and then the Mongols. Thus, Boyarin has argued that "Jewishness disrupts the very categories of identity, because it is not national, not genealogical, not religious, but all of these, in dialectical tension."[67] In contrast to this point of view, practices such as Humanistic Judaism reject the religious aspects of Judaism, while retaining certain cultural traditions. Who is a Jew? Main article: Who is a Jew? According to traditional Jewish Law, a Jew is anyone born of a Jewish mother or converted to Judaism in accordance with Jewish Law. American Reform Judaism and British Liberal Judaism accept the child of one Jewish parent (father or mother) as Jewish if the parents raise the child with a Jewish identity. All mainstream forms of Judaism today are open to sincere converts, although conversion has traditionally been discouraged since the time of the Talmud. The conversion process is evaluated by an authority, and the convert is examined on his or her sincerity and knowledge.[68] Converts are given the name "ben Abraham" or "bat Abraham", (son or daughter of Abraham). Traditional Judaism maintains that a Jew, whether by birth or conversion, is a Jew forever. Thus a Jew who claims to be an atheist or converts to another religion is still considered by traditional Judaism to be Jewish. According to some sources, the Reform movement has maintained that a Jew who has converted to another religion is no longer a Jew,[69][70] and the Israeli Government has also taken that stance after Supreme Court cases and statutes.[71] However, the Reform movement has indicated that this is not so cut and dry, and different situations call for consideration and differing actions. For example, Jews who have converted under duress may be permitted to return to Judaism "without any action on their part but their desire to rejoin the Jewish community" and "A proselyte who has become an apostate remains, nevertheless, a Jew". (p. 100-106).[72] The question of what determines Jewish identity in the State of Israel was given new impetus when, in the 1950s, David Ben-Gurion requested opinions on mihu Yehudi ("who is a Jew") from Jewish religious authorities and intellectuals worldwide in order to settle citizenship questions. This is still not settled, and occasionally resurfaces in Israeli politics. Jewish demographics Main article: Jewish population The total number of Jews worldwide is difficult to assess because the definition of "who is a Jew" is problematic; not all Jews identify themselves as Jewish, and some who identify as Jewish are not considered so by other Jews. According to the Jewish Year Book (1901), the global Jewish population in 1900 was around 11 million. The latest available data is from the World Jewish Population Survey of 2002 and the Jewish Year Calendar (2005). In 2002, according to the Jewish Population Survey, there were 13.3 million Jews around the world. The Jewish Year Calendar cites 14.6 million. Jewish population growth is currently near zero percent, with 0.3% growth from 2000 to 2001. Jewish religious movements  Main article: Jewish religious movements Rabbinic Judaism Rabbinic Judaism (or in some Christian traditions, Rabbinism) (Hebrew: "Yahadut Rabanit" - יהדות רבנית) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Talmud. It is characterised by the belief that the Written Torah (Law) cannot be correctly interpreted without reference to the Oral Torah and by the voluminous literature specifying what behavior is sanctioned by the law (called halakha, "the way"). The Jewish Enlightenment of the late 18th century resulted in the division of Ashkenazi (Western) Jewry into religious movements or denominations, especially in North America and Anglophone countries. The main denominations today outside Israel (where the situation is rather different) are Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform. Orthodox Judaism holds that both the Written and Oral Torah were divinely revealed to Moses, and that the laws within it are binding and unchanging. Orthodox Jews generally consider commentaries on the Shulchan Aruch (a condensed codification of halakha that largely favored Sephardic traditions) to be the definitive codification of Jewish law. Orthodoxy places a high importance on Maimonides' 13 principles as a definition of Jewish faith. Orthodoxy is often divided into Modern Orthodox Judaism and Haredi Judaism. Haredi Judaism is less accommodating to modernity and has less interest in non-Jewish disciplines, and it may be distinguished from Modern Orthodox Judaism in practice by its styles of dress and more stringent practices. Subsets of Haredi Judaism include: Hasidic Judaism, which is rooted in the Kabbalah and distinguished by reliance on a Rebbe or religious teacher; and Sephardic Haredi Judaism, which emerged among Sephardic (Asian and North African) Jews in Israel. Conservative Judaism, known as Masorti outside the United States and Canada, is characterized by a commitment to traditional Jewish laws and customs, including observance of Shabbat and kashrut, a deliberately non-fundamentalist teaching of Jewish principles of faith, a positive attitude toward modern culture, and an acceptance of both traditional rabbinic and modern scholarship when considering Jewish religious texts. Conservative Judaism teaches that Jewish law is not static, but has always developed in response to changing conditions. It holds that the Torah is a divine document written by prophets inspired by God and reflecting his will, but rejects the Orthodox position that it was dictated by God to Moses.[73][74] Conservative Judaism holds that the Oral Law is divine and normative, but holds that both the Written and Oral Law may be interpreted by the rabbis to reflect modern sensibilities and suit modern conditions. Reform Judaism, called Liberal or Progressive Judaism in many countries, defines Judaism as a religion rather than as a race or culture, rejects most of the ritual and ceremonial laws of the Torah while observing moral laws, and emphasizes the ethical call of the Prophets. Reform Judaism has developed an egalitarian prayer service in the vernacular (along with Hebrew in many cases) and emphasizes personal connection to Jewish tradition.   A Reform synagogue with mixed seating and equal participation of men and women Reconstructionist Judaism, like Reform Judaism, does not hold that Jewish law, as such, requires observance, but unlike Reform, Reconstructionist thought emphasizes the role of the community in deciding what observances to follow. Jewish Renewal is a recent North American movement which focuses on spirituality and social justice, but does not address issues of Jewish law. Men and women participate equally in prayer. Humanistic Judaism is a small non-theistic movement centered in North America and Israel that emphasizes Jewish culture and history as the sources of Jewish identity. Jewish movements in Israel Main article: Religion in Israel Most Jewish Israelis classify themselves as "secular" (hiloni), "traditional" (masorti), "religious" (dati) or Haredi. The term "secular" is more popular as a self-description among Israeli families of western (European) origin, whose Jewish identity may be a very powerful force in their lives, but who see it as largely independent of traditional religious belief and practice. This portion of the population largely ignores organized religious life, be it of the official Israeli rabbinate (Orthodox) or of the liberal movements common to diaspora Judaism (Reform, Conservative). The term "traditional" (masorti) is most common as a self-description among Israeli families of "eastern" origin (i.e., the Middle East, Central Asia, and North Africa). This term, as commonly used, has nothing to do with the official Masorti (Conservative) movement. There is a great deal of ambiguity in the ways "secular" and "traditional" are used in Israel: they often overlap, and they cover an extremely wide range in terms of ideology and religious observance. The term "Orthodox" is not popular in Israeli discourse, although the percentage of Jews who come under that category is far greater than in the diaspora. What would be called "Orthodox" in the diaspora includes what is commonly called dati (religious) or haredi (ultra-Orthodox) in Israel. The former term includes what is called "Religious Zionism" or the "National Religious" community, as well as what has become known over the past decade or so as haredi-leumi (nationalist haredi), or "Hardal", which combines a largely haredi lifestyle with nationalist ideology. (Some people, in Yiddish, also refer to observant Orthodox Jews as frum, as opposed to frei (more liberal Jews)). Haredi applies to a populace that can be roughly divided into three separate groups along both ethnic and ideological lines: (1) "Lithuanian" (non-hasidic) haredim of Ashkenazic origin; (2) Hasidic haredim of Ashkenazic origin; and (3) Sephardic haredim. Alternative Judaism Main article: Alternative Judaism Karaite Judaism defines itself as the remnants of the non-Rabbinic Jewish sects of the Second Temple period, such as the Sadducees. The Karaites ("Scripturalists") accept only the Hebrew Bible and what they view as the Peshat ("simple" meaning); they do not accept non-biblical writings as authoritative. Some European Karaites do not see themselves as part of the Jewish community at all, although most do. The Samaritans, a very small community located entirely around Mount Gerizim in the Nablus/Shechem region of the West Bank and in Holon, near Tel Aviv in Israel, regard themselves as the descendants of the Israelites of the Iron Age kingdom of Israel. Their religious practices are those of Judaism, but they regard only the written Torah as authoritative scripture (with a special regard also for the Samaritan Book of Joshua). Jewish observances  Jewish ethics Main article: Jewish ethics Jewish ethics may be guided by halakhic traditions, by other moral principles, or by central Jewish virtues. Jewish ethical practice is typically understood to be marked by values such as justice, truth, peace, loving-kindness (chesed), compassion, humility, and self-respect. Specific Jewish ethical practices include practices of charity (tzedakah) and refraining from negative speech (lashon hara). Proper ethical practices regarding sexuality and many other issues are subjects of dispute among Jews. Prayers Main article: Jewish services   A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin Traditionally, Jews recite prayers three times daily, Shacharit, Mincha, and Ma'ariv with a fourth prayer, Mussaf added on Shabbat and holidays. At the heart of each service is the Amidah or Shemoneh Esrei. Another key prayer in many services is the declaration of faith, the Shema Yisrael (or Shema). The Shema is the recitation of a verse from the Torah (Deuteronomy 6:4): Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Echad—"Hear, O Israel! The Lord is our God! The Lord is One!" Most of the prayers in a traditional Jewish service can be recited in solitary prayer, although communal prayer is preferred. Communal prayer requires a quorum of ten adult Jews, called a minyan. In nearly all Orthodox and a few Conservative circles, only male Jews are counted toward a minyan; most Conservative Jews and members of other Jewish denominations count female Jews as well. In addition to prayer services, observant traditional Jews recite prayers and benedictions throughout the day when performing various acts. Prayers are recited upon waking up in the morning, before eating or drinking different foods, after eating a meal, and so on. The approach to prayer varies among the Jewish denominations. Differences can include the texts of prayers, the frequency of prayer, the number of prayers recited at various religious events, the use of musical instruments and choral music, and whether prayers are recited in the traditional liturgical languages or the vernacular. In general, Orthodox and Conservative congregations adhere most closely to tradition, and Reform and Reconstructionist synagogues are more likely to incorporate translations and contemporary writings in their services. Also, in most Conservative synagogues, and all Reform and Reconstructionist congregations, women participate in prayer services on an equal basis with men, including roles traditionally filled only by men, such as reading from the Torah. In addition, many Reform temples use musical accompaniment such as organs and mixed choirs. Religious clothing Further information: kippah, tzitzit, and tefillin A kippah (Hebrew: כִּפָּה, plural kippot; Yiddish: יאַרמלקע, yarmulke) is a slightly rounded brimless skullcap worn by many Jews while praying, eating, reciting blessings, or studying Jewish religious texts, and at all times by some Jewish men. In Orthodox communities, only men wear kippot; in non-Orthodox communities, some women also wear kippot. Kippot range in size from a small round beanie that covers only the back of the head, to a large, snug cap that covers the whole crown. Tzitzit (Hebrew: צִיציִת) (Ashkenazi pronunciation: tzitzis) are special knotted "fringes" or "tassels" found on the four corners of the tallit (Hebrew: טַלִּית) (Ashkenazi pronunciation: tallis), or prayer shawl. The tallit is worn by Jewish men and some Jewish women during the prayer service. Customs vary regarding when a Jew begins wearing a tallit. In the Sephardi community, boys wear a tallit from bar mitzvah age. In some Ashkenazi communities it is customary to wear one only after marriage. A tallit katan (small tallit) is a fringed garment worn under the clothing throughout the day. In some Orthodox circles, the fringes are allowed to hang freely outside the clothing. Tefillin (Hebrew: תְפִלִּין), known in English as phylacteries (from the Greek word φυλακτήριον, meaning safeguard or amulet), are two square leather boxes containing biblical verses, attached to the forehead and wound around the left arm by leather straps. They are worn during weekday morning prayer by observant Jewish men and some Jewish women.[75] A kittel (Yiddish: קיטל), a white knee-length overgarment, is worn by prayer leaders and some observant traditional Jews on the High Holidays. It is traditional for the head of the household to wear a kittel at the Passover seder in some communities, and some grooms wear one under the wedding canopy. Jewish males are buried in a tallit and sometimes also a kittel which are part of the tachrichim (burial garments). Jewish holidays Main article: Jewish holiday Jewish holidays are special days in the Jewish calendar, which celebrate moments in Jewish history, as well as central themes in the relationship between God and the world, such as creation, revelation, and redemption. Shabbat Main article: Shabbat   Two braided Shabbat challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat meal Shabbat, the weekly day of rest lasting from shortly before sundown on Friday night to nightfall Saturday night, commemorates God's day of rest after six days of creation.[76] It plays a pivotal role in Jewish practice and is governed by a large corpus of religious law. At sundown on Friday, the woman of the house welcomes the Shabbat by lighting two or more candles and reciting a blessing. The evening meal begins with the Kiddush, a blessing recited aloud over a cup of wine, and the Mohtzi, a blessing recited over the bread. It is customary to have challah, two braided loaves of bread, on the table. During Shabbat Jews are forbidden to engage in any activity that falls under 39 categories of melakhah, translated literally as "work". In fact the activities banned on the Sabbath are not "work" in the usual sense: They include such actions as lighting a fire, writing, using money and carrying in the public domain. The prohibition of lighting a fire has been extended in the modern era to driving a car, which involves burning fuel, and using electricity. Three pilgrimage festivals Main article: Shalosh regalim   Sukkahs in Jerusalem Jewish holy days (chaggim), celebrate landmark events in Jewish history, such as the Exodus from Egypt and the giving of the Torah, and sometimes mark the change of seasons and transitions in the agricultural cycle. The three major festivals, Sukkot, Passover and Shavuot, are called "regalim" (derived from the Hebrew word "regel", or foot). On the three regalim, it was customary for the Israelites to make pilgrimages to Jerusalem to offer sacrifices in the Temple. Passover (Pesach) is a week-long holiday beginning on the evening of the 14th day of Nisan (the first month in the Hebrew calendar), that commemorates the Exodus from Egypt. Outside Israel, Passover is celebrated for eight days. In ancient times, it coincided with the barley harvest. It is the only holiday that centers on home-service, the Seder. Leavened products (chametz) are removed from the house prior to the holiday, and are not consumed throughout the week. Homes are thoroughly cleaned to ensure no bread or bread by-products remain, and a symbolic burning of the last vestiges of chametz is conducted on the morning of the Seder. Matzo is eaten instead of bread. Shavuot ("Pentecost" or "Feast of Weeks") celebrates the revelation of the Torah to the Israelites on Mount Sinai. Also known as the Festival of Bikurim, or first fruits, it coincided in biblical times with the wheat harvest. Shavuot customs include all-night study marathons known as Tikkun Leil Shavuot, eating dairy foods (cheesecake and blintzes are special favorites), reading the Book of Ruth, decorating homes and synagogues with greenery, and wearing white clothing, symbolizing purity. Sukkot ("Tabernacles" or "The Festival of Booths") commemorates the Israelites' forty years of wandering through the desert on their way to the Promised Land. It is celebrated through the construction of temporary booths called sukkot (sing. sukkah) that represent the temporary shelters of the Israelites during their wandering. It coincides with the fruit harvest, and marks the end of the agricultural cycle. Jews around the world eat in sukkot for seven days and nights. Sukkot concludes with Shemini Atzeret, where Jews begin to pray for rain and Simchat Torah, "Rejoicing of the Torah", a holiday which marks reaching the end of the Torah reading cycle and beginning all over again. The occasion is celebrated with singing and dancing with the Torah scrolls. Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah are technically considered to be a separate holiday and not a part of Sukkot. High Holy Days Main article: High Holidays   Jews praying in a synagogue on Yom Kippur, from an 1878 painting by Maurycy Gottlieb The High Holidays (Yamim Noraim or "Days of Awe") revolve around judgment and forgiveness. Rosh Hashanah, (also Yom Ha-Zikkaron or "Day of Remembrance", and Yom Teruah, or "Day of the Sounding of the Shofar"). Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year (literally, "head of the year"), although it falls on the first day of the seventh month of the Hebrew calendar, Tishri. Rosh Hashanah marks the beginning of the 10-day period of atonement leading up to Yom Kippur, during which Jews are commanded to search their souls and make amends for sins committed, intentionally or not, throughout the year. Holiday customs include blowing the shofar, or ram's horn, in the synagogue, eating apples and honey, and saying blessings over a variety of symbolic foods, such as pomegranates. Yom Kippur, ("Day of Atonement") is the holiest day of the Jewish year. It is a day of communal fasting and praying for forgiveness for one's sins. Observant Jews spend the entire day in the synagogue, sometimes with a short break in the afternoon, reciting prayers from a special holiday prayerbook called a "Machzor". Many non-religious Jews make a point of attending synagogue services and fasting on Yom Kippur. On the eve of Yom Kippur, before candles are lit, a prefast meal, the "seuda mafseket", is eaten. Synagogue services on the eve of Yom Kippur begin with the Kol Nidre prayer. It is customary to wear white on Yom Kippur, especially for Kol Nidre, and leather shoes are not worn. The following day, prayers are held from morning to evening. The final prayer service, called "Ne'ilah", ends with a long blast of the shofar. Purim Main article: Purim   Purim street scene in Jerusalem Purim (Hebrew:  פורים (help·info) Pûrîm "lots") is a joyous Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of the Persian Jews from the plot of the evil Haman, who sought to exterminate them, as recorded in the biblical Book of Esther. It is characterized by public recitation of the Book of Esther, mutual gifts of food and drink, charity to the poor, and a celebratory meal (Esther 9:22). Other customs include drinking wine, eating special pastries called hamantashen, dressing up in masks and costumes, and organizing carnivals and parties. Purim is celebrated annually on the 14th of the Hebrew month of Adar, which occurs in February or March of the Gregorian calendar. Hanukkah Main article: Hanukkah Hanukkah (Hebrew: חֲנֻכָּה‎, "dedication") also known as the Festival of Lights, is an eight day Jewish holiday that starts on the 25th day of Kislev (Hebrew calendar). The festival is observed in Jewish homes by the kindling of lights on each of the festival's eight nights, one on the first night, two on the second night and so on. The holiday was called Hanukkah (meaning "dedication") because it marks the re-dedication of the Temple after its desecration by Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Spiritually, Hanukkah commemorates the "Miracle of the Oil". According to the Talmud, at the re-dedication of the Temple in Jerusalem following the victory of the Maccabees over the Seleucid Empire, there was only enough consecrated oil to fuel the eternal flame in the Temple for one day. Miraculously, the oil burned for eight days - which was the length of time it took to press, prepare and consecrate new oil. Hanukkah is not mentioned in the Bible and was never considered a major holiday in Judaism, but it has become much more visible and widely celebrated in modern times, mainly because it falls around the same time as Christmas and has national Jewish overtones that have been emphasized since the establishment of the State of Israel. Other holidays Main article: Tisha B'Av Main articles: Yom Hashoah and Yom Ha'atzmaut Tisha B'Av (Hebrew: תשעה באב‎ or ט׳ באב, "the Ninth of Av") is a holiday of mourning and fasting commemorating the destruction of the First and Second Temples and the expulsion of the Jews from Spain. The modern holidays of Yom Ha-shoah (Holocaust Remembrance Day) and Yom Ha'atzmaut (Israeli Independence Day) commemorate the horrors of the Holocaust and the achievement of Israel independence, respectively. Torah readings Main article: Torah reading The core of festival and Shabbat prayer services is the public reading of the Torah, along with connected readings from the other books of the Tanakh, called Haftarah. Over the course of a year, the whole Torah is read, with the cycle starting over in the autumn, on Simchat Torah. Synagogues and religious buildings Main article: Synagogue   Interior of the Esnoga synagogue in Amsterdam Synagogues are Jewish houses of prayer and study. They usually contain separate rooms for prayer (the main sanctuary), smaller rooms for study, and often an area for community or educational use. There is no set blueprint for synagogues and the architectural shapes and interior designs of synagogues vary greatly. The Reform movement mostly refer to their synagogues as temples. Some traditional features of a synagogue are: The ark (called aron ha-kodesh by Ashkenazim and hekhal by Sephardim) where the Torah scrolls are kept (the ark is often closed with an ornate curtain (parochet) outside or inside the ark doors); The elevated reader's platform (called bimah by Ashkenazim and tebah by Sephardim), where the Torah is read (and services are conducted in Sephardi synagogues); The eternal light (ner tamid), a continually lit lamp or lantern used as a reminder of the constantly lit menorah of the Temple in Jerusalem The pulpit, or amud, a lectern facing the Ark where the hazzan or prayer leader stands while praying. In addition to synagogues, other buildings of significance in Judaism include yeshivas, or institutions of Jewish learning, and mikvahs, which are ritual baths. Dietary laws: kashrut Main article: Kashrut The Jewish dietary laws are known as kashrut. Food prepared in accordance with them is termed kosher, and food that is not kosher is also known as treifah or treif. People who observe these laws are colloquially said to be "keeping kosher".[77] Many of the laws apply to animal-based foods. For example, in order to be considered kosher, mammals must have split hooves and chew their cud. The pig is arguably the most well-known example of a non-kosher animal.[78] Although it has split hooves, it does not chew its cud.[79] For seafood to be kosher, the animal must have fins and scales. Certain types of seafood, such as shellfish, crustaceans, and eels, are therefore considered non-kosher. Concerning birds, a list of non-kosher species is given in the Torah. The exact translations of many of the species have not survived, and some non-kosher birds' identities are no longer certain. However, traditions exist about the kashrut status of a few birds. For example, both chickens and turkeys are permitted in most communities. Other types of animals, such as amphibians, reptiles, and most insects, are prohibited altogether.[77] In addition to the requirement that the species be considered kosher, meat and poultry (but not fish) must come from a healthy animal slaughtered in a process known as shechitah. Without the proper slaughtering practices even an otherwise kosher animal will be rendered treif. The slaughtering process is intended to be quick and relatively painless to the animal. Forbidden parts of animals include the blood, some fats, and the area in and around the sciatic nerve.[77] Jewish law also forbids the consumption of meat and dairy products together. The waiting period between eating meat and eating dairy varies by the order in which they are consumed and by community, and can extend for up to six hours. Based on the Biblical injunction against cooking a kid in its mother's milk, this rule is mostly derived from the Oral Torah, the Talmud and Rabbinic law.[77] Chicken and other kosher birds are considered the same as meat under the laws of kashrut, but the prohibition is Rabbinic, not Biblical.[80] The use of dishes, serving utensils, and ovens may make food treif that would otherwise be kosher. Utensils that have been used to prepare non-kosher food, or dishes that have held meat and are now used for dairy products, render the food treif under certain conditions.[77] Furthermore, all Orthodox and some Conservative authorities forbid the consumption of processed grape products made by non-Jews, due to ancient pagan practices of using wine in rituals.[77] Some Conservative authorities permit wine and grape juice made without rabbinic supervision.[81] The Torah does not give specific reasons for most of the laws of kashrut.[77] However, a number of explanations have been offered, including maintaining ritual purity, teaching impulse control, encouraging obedience to God, improving health, reducing cruelty to animals and preserving the distinctness of the Jewish community.[82] The various categories of dietary laws may have developed for different reasons, and some may exist for multiple reasons. For example, people are forbidden from consuming the blood of birds and mammals because, according to the Torah, this is where animal souls are contained.[83] In contrast, the Torah forbids Israelites from eating non-kosher species because "they are unclean".[84] The Kabbalah describes sparks of holiness that are released by the act of eating kosher foods, but are too tightly bound in non-kosher foods to be released by eating.[85] Survival concerns supersede all the laws of kashrut, as they do for most halakhot.[86][87] Laws of ritual purity Main article: Tumah The Tanakh describes circumstances in which a person who is tahor or ritually pure may become tamei or ritually impure. Some of these circumstances are contact with human corpses or graves, seminal flux, vaginal flux, menstruation, and contact with people who have become impure from any of these.[88][89] In Rabbinic Judaism, Kohanim, members of the hereditary caste that served as priests in the time of the Temple, are mostly restricted from entering grave sites and touching dead bodies.[90] Family purity Main article: Niddah An important subcategory of the ritual purity laws relates to the segregation of menstruating women. These laws are also known as niddah, literally "separation", or family purity. Vital aspects of halakha for traditionally observant Jews, they are not usually followed by Jews in liberal denominations.[91] Especially in Orthodox Judaism, the Biblical laws are augmented by Rabbinical injunctions. For example, the Torah mandates that a woman in her normal menstrual period must abstain from sexual intercourse for seven days. A woman whose menstruation is prolonged must continue to abstain for seven more days after bleeding has stopped.[88] The Rabbis conflated ordinary niddah with this extended menstrual period, known in the Torah as zavah, and mandated that a woman may not have sexual intercourse with her husband from the time she begins her menstrual flow until seven days after it ends. In addition, Rabbinical law forbids the husband from touching or sharing a bed with his wife during this period. Afterwards, purification can occur in a ritual bath called a mikveh.[91] Traditional Ethiopian Jews keep menstruating women in separate huts and, similar to Karaite practice, do not allow menstruating women into their temples because of a temple's special sanctity. Emigration to Israel and the influence of other Jewish denominations have led to Ethiopian Jews adopting more normative Jewish practices.[92][93] Life-cycle events Life-cycle events, or rites of passage, occur throughout a Jew's life that serve to strengthen Jewish identity and bind him/her to the entire community. Brit milah - Welcoming male babies into the covenant through the rite of circumcision on their eighth day of life. The baby boy is also given his Hebrew name in the ceremony. A naming ceremony intended as a parallel ritual for girls, named zeved habat or brit bat, enjoys limited popularity. Bar mitzvah and Bat mitzvah - This passage from childhood to adulthood takes place when a female Jew is twelve and a male Jew is thirteen years old among Orthodox and some Conservative congregations. In the Reform movement, both girls and boys have their bat/bar mitzvah at age thirteen. This is often commemorated by having the new adults, male only in the Orthodox tradition, lead the congregation in prayer and publicly read a "portion" of the Torah. Marriage - Marriage is an extremely important lifecycle event. A wedding takes place under a chupah, or wedding canopy, which symbolizes a happy house. At the end of the ceremony, the groom breaks a glass with his foot, symbolizing the continuous mourning for the destruction of the Temple, and the scattering of the Jewish people. Death and Mourning - Judaism has a multi-staged mourning practice. The first stage is called the shiva (literally "seven", observed for one week) during which it is traditional to sit at home and be comforted by friends and family, the second is the shloshim (observed for one month) and for those who have lost one of their parents, there is a third stage, avelut yud bet chodesh, which is observed for eleven months. Community leadership  Classical priesthood The role of the priesthood in Judaism has significantly diminished since the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, when priests attended to the Temple and sacrifices. The priesthood is an inherited position, and although priests no longer have any but ceremonial duties, they are still honored in many Jewish communities. Many Orthodox Jewish communities believe that they will be needed again for a future Third Temple and need to remain in readiness for future duty. Kohen (priest) - patrilineal descendant of Aaron, brother of Moses. In the Temple, the kohanim were charged with performing the sacrifices. Today, a Kohen is the first one called up at the reading of the Torah, performs the Priestly Blessing, as well as complying with other unique laws and ceremonies, including the ceremony of redemption of the first-born. Levi (Levite) - Patrilineal descendant of Levi the son of Jacob. In the Temple in Jerusalem, the levites sang Psalms, performed construction, maintenance, janitorial, and guard duties, assisted the priests, and sometimes interpreted the law and Temple ritual to the public. Today, a Levite is called up second to the reading of the Torah. Prayer leaders From the time of the Mishnah and Talmud to the present, Judaism has required specialists or authorities for the practice of very few rituals or ceremonies. A Jew can fulfill most requirements for prayer by himself. Some activities—reading the Torah and haftarah (a supplementary portion from the Prophets or Writings), the prayer for mourners, the blessings for bridegroom and bride, the complete grace after meals—require a minyan, the presence of ten Jews. The most common professional clergy in a synagogue are: Rabbi of a congregation - Jewish scholar who is charged with answering the legal questions of a congregation. This role requires ordination by the congregation's preferred authority (i.e. from a respected Orthodox rabbi or, if the congregation is Conservative or Reform, from academic seminaries). A congregation does not necessarily require a rabbi. Some congregations have a rabbi but also allow members of the congregation to act as shatz or baal kriyah (see below). Hassidic Rebbe - rabbi who is the head of a Hasidic dynasty. Hazzan (note: the "h" denotes voiceless pharyngeal fricative) (cantor) - a trained vocalist who acts as shatz. Chosen for a good voice, knowledge of traditional tunes, understanding of the meaning of the prayers and sincerity in reciting them. A congregation does not need to have a dedicated hazzan. Jewish prayer services do involve two specified roles, which are sometimes, but not always, filled by a rabbi and/or hazzan in many congregations. In other congregations these roles are filled on an ad-hoc basis by members of the congregation who lead portions of services on a rotating basis: Shaliach tzibur or Shatz (leader—literally "agent" or "representative"—of the congregation) leads those assembled in prayer, and sometimes prays on behalf of the community. When a shatz recites a prayer on behalf of the congregation, he is not acting as an intermediary but rather as a facilitator. The entire congregation participates in the recital of such prayers by saying amen at their conclusion; it is with this act that the shatz's prayer becomes the prayer of the congregation. Any adult capable of reciting the prayers clearly may act as shatz. In Orthodox congregations and some Conservative congregations, only men can be prayer leaders, but all Progressive communities now allow women to serve in this function. The Baal kriyah or baal koreh (master of the reading) reads the weekly Torah portion. The requirements for being the baal kriyah are the same as those for the shatz. These roles are not mutually exclusive. The same person is often qualified to fill more than one role, and often does. Often there are several people capable of filling these roles and different services (or parts of services) will be led by each. Many congregations, especially larger ones, also rely on a: Gabbai (sexton) - Calls people up to the Torah, appoints the shatz for each prayer session if there is no standard shatz, and makes certain that the synagogue is kept clean and supplied. The three preceding positions are usually voluntary and considered an honor. Since the Enlightenment large synagogues have often adopted the practice of hiring rabbis and hazzans to act as shatz and baal kriyah, and this is still typically the case in many Conservative and Reform congregations. However, in most Orthodox synagogues these positions are filled by laypeople on a rotating or ad-hoc basis. Although most congregations hire one or more Rabbis, the use of a professional hazzan is generally declining in American congregations, and the use of professionals for other offices is rarer still. Specialized religious roles Dayan (judge) - An ordained rabbi with special legal training who belongs to a beth din (rabbinical court). In Israel, religious courts handle marriage and divorce cases, conversion and financial disputes in the Jewish community. Mohel (circumciser) - An expert in the laws of circumcision who has received training from a previously qualified mohel and performs the brit milah (circumcision). Shochet (ritual slaughterer) - In order for meat to be kosher, it must be slaughtered by a shochet who is an expert in the laws of kashrut and has been trained by another shochet. Sofer (scribe) - Torah scrolls, tefillin (phylacteries), mezuzot (scrolls put on doorposts), and gittin (bills of divorce) must be written by a sofer who is an expert in Hebrew calligraphy and has undergone rigorous training in the laws of writing sacred texts. Rosh yeshiva - A Torah scholar who runs a yeshiva. Mashgiach of a yeshiva - Depending on which yeshiva, might either be the person responsible for ensuring attendance and proper conduct, or even supervise the emotional and spiritual welfare of the students and give lectures on mussar (Jewish ethics). Mashgiach - Supervises manufacturers of kosher food, importers, caterers and restaurants to ensure that the food is kosher. Must be an expert in the laws of kashrut and trained by a rabbi, if not a rabbi himself. History  Main article: Jewish history Origins Main article: Origins of Judaism Further information: Ancient Semitic religion   Scenes from the Book of Esther decorate the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE At its core, the Tanakh is an account of the Israelites' relationship with God from their earliest history until the building of the Second Temple (c. 535 BCE). Abraham is hailed as the first Hebrew and the father of the Jewish people. As a reward for his act of faith in one God, he was promised that Isaac, his second son, would inherit the Land of Israel (then called Canaan). Later, Jacob and his children were enslaved in Egypt, and God commanded Moses to lead the Exodus from Egypt. At Mount Sinai they received the Torah - the five books of Moses. These books, together with Nevi'im and Ketuvim are known as Torah Shebikhtav as opposed to the Oral Torah, which refers to the Mishna and the Talmud. Eventually, God led them to the land of Israel where the tabernacle was planted in the city of Shiloh for over 300 years to rally the nation against attacking enemies. As time went on, the spiritual level of the nation declined to the point that God allowed the Philistines to capture the tabernacle. The people of Israel then told Samuel the prophet that they needed to be governed by a permanent king, and Samuel appointed Saul to be their King. When the people pressured Saul into going against a command conveyed to him by Samuel, God told Samuel to appoint David in his stead.   The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism. Once King David was established, he told the prophet Nathan that he would like to build a permanent temple, and as a reward for his actions, God promised David that he would allow his son, Solomon, to build the first permanent temple and the throne would never depart from his children. Rabbinic tradition holds that the details and interpretation of the law, which are called the Oral Torah or oral law, were originally an unwritten tradition based upon what God told Moses on Mount Sinai. However, as the persecutions of the Jews increased and the details were in danger of being forgotten, these oral laws were recorded by Rabbi Judah haNasi (Judah the Prince) in the Mishnah, redacted circa 200 CE. The Talmud was a compilation of both the Mishnah and the Gemara, rabbinic commentaries redacted over the next three centuries. The Gemara originated in two major centers of Jewish scholarship, Palestine and Babylonia. Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, and two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Jerusalem Talmud. It was compiled sometime during the 4th century in Israel. The Babylonian Talmud was compiled from discussions in the houses of study by the scholars Ravina I, Ravina II, and Rav Ashi by 500 CE, although it continued to be edited later. Some critical scholars oppose the view that the sacred texts, including the Hebrew Bible, were divinely inspired. Many of these scholars accept the general principles of the documentary hypothesis and suggest that the Torah consists of inconsistent texts edited together in a way that calls attention to divergent accounts.[94][95][96] Many suggest that during the First Temple period, the people of Israel believed that each nation had its own god, but that their god was superior to other gods.[97][98] Some suggest that strict monotheism developed during the Babylonian Exile, perhaps in reaction to Zoroastrian dualism.[99] In this view, it was only by the Hellenic period that most Jews came to believe that their god was the only god, and that the notion of a clearly bounded Jewish nation identical with the Jewish religion formed.[100] John Day argues that the origins of biblical Yahweh, El, Asherah, and Ba'al, may be rooted in earlier Canaanite religion, which was centered on a pantheon of gods much like the Greek Pantheon.[101] Antiquity Main articles: Ancient Israel and Judah, Babylonian captivity, Hellenistic Judaism, Hasmonean Kingdom, Iudaea Province, and Bar Kokhba revolt The United Monarchy was established under Saul and continued under King David and Solomon with its capital in Jerusalem. After Solomon's reign the nation split into two kingdoms, the Kingdom of Israel (in the north) and the Kingdom of Judah (in the south). The Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Assyrian ruler Sargon II in the late 8th century BCE with many people from the capital Samaria being taken captive to Media and the Khabur River valley. The Kingdom of Judah continued as an independent state until it was conquered by a Babylonian army in the early 6th century BCE, destroying the First Temple that was at the center of ancient Jewish worship. The Judean elite were exiled to Babylonia and this is regarded as the first Jewish Diaspora. Later many of them returned to their homeland after the subsequent conquest of Babylonia by the Persians seventy years later, a period known as the Babylonian Captivity. A new Second Temple was constructed, and old religious practices were resumed. During the early years of the Second Temple, the highest religious authority was a council known as the Great Assembly, led by Ezra of the Book of Ezra. Among other accomplishments of the Great Assembly, the last books of the Bible were written at this time and the canon sealed. Hellenistic Judaism spread to Ptolemaic Egypt from the 3rd century BCE. After the Great Revolt (66–73 CE), the Romans destroyed the Temple. Hadrian built a pagan idol on the Temple grounds and prohibited circumcision; these acts of ethnocide provoked the Bar Kokhba revolt 132–136 CE after which the Romans banned the study of the Torah and the celebration of Jewish holidays, and forcibly removed virtually all Jews from Judea. In 200 CE, however, Jews were granted Roman citizenship and Judaism was recognized as a religio licita ("legitimate religion"), until the rise of Gnosticism and Early Christianity in in the fourth century. Following the destruction of Jerusalem and the expulsion of the Jews, Jewish worship stopped being centrally organized around the Temple, prayer took the place of sacrifice, and worship was rebuilt around the community (represented by a minimum of ten adult men) and the establishment of the authority of rabbis who acted as teachers and leaders of individual communities (see Jewish diaspora). Historical Jewish groupings (to 1700) Around the 1st century CE there were several small Jewish sects: the Pharisees, Sadducees, Zealots, Essenes, and Christians. After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, these sects vanished. Christianity survived, but by breaking with Judaism and becoming a separate religion; the Pharisees survived but in the form of Rabbinic Judaism (today, known simply as "Judaism"). The Sadducees rejected the divine inspiration of the Prophets and the Writings, relying only on the Torah as divinely inspired. Consequently, a number of other core tenets of the Pharisees' belief system (which became the basis for modern Judaism), were also dismissed by the Sadducees. (The Samaritans practiced a similar religion, which is traditionally considered separate from Judaism.) Like the Sadducees who relied only on the Torah, some Jews in the 8th and 9th centuries rejected the authority and divine inspiration of the oral law as recorded in the Mishnah (and developed by later rabbis in the two Talmuds), relying instead only upon the Tanakh. These included the Isunians, the Yudganites, the Malikites, and others. They soon developed oral traditions of their own, which differed from the rabbinic traditions, and eventually formed the Karaite sect. Karaites exist in small numbers today, mostly living in Israel. Rabbinical and Karaite Jews each hold that the others are Jews, but that the other faith is erroneous. Over a long time, Jews formed distinct ethnic groups in several different geographic areas — amongst others, the Ashkenazi Jews (of central and Eastern Europe), the Sephardi Jews (of Spain, Portugal, and North Africa), the Beta Israel of Ethiopia, and the Yemenite Jews from the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. Many of these groups have developed differences in their prayers, traditions and accepted canons; however these distinctions are mainly the result of their being formed at some cultural distance from normative (rabbinic) Judaism, rather than based on any doctrinal dispute. Persecutions Main articles: Persecution of Jews, Antisemitism, and History of antisemitism Antisemitism arose during the Middle Ages, in the form of persecutions, pogroms, forced conversion, expulsions, social restrictions and ghettoization. This was different in quality to any repressions of Jews in ancient times. Ancient repression was politically motivated and Jews were treated no differently than any other ethnic group would have been. With the rise of the Churches, attacks on Jews became motivated instead by theological considerations specifically deriving from Christian views about Jews and Judaism.[102] Hasidism Main article: Hasidic Judaism Hasidic Judaism was founded by Yisroel ben Eliezer (1700–1760), also known as the Ba'al Shem Tov (or Besht). It originated in a time of persecution of the Jewish people, when European Jews had turned inward to Talmud study; many felt that most expressions of Jewish life had become too "academic", and that they no longer had any emphasis on spirituality or joy. His disciples attracted many followers; they themselves established numerous Hasidic sects across Europe. Hasidic Judaism eventually became the way of life for many Jews in Europe. Waves of Jewish immigration in the 1880s carried it to the United States. The movement itself claims to be nothing new, but a refreshment of original Judaism. Or as some have put it: "they merely re-emphasized that which the generations had lost".[103] Nevertheless, early on there was a serious schism between Hasidic and non-Hasidic Jews. European Jews who rejected the Hasidic movement were dubbed by the Hasidim as Misnagdim, (lit. "opponents"). Some of the reasons for the rejection of Hasidic Judaism were the overwhelming exuberance of Hasidic worship, its untraditional ascriptions of infallibility and alleged miracle-working to their leaders, and the concern that it might become a messianic sect. Since then differences between the Hasidim and their opponents have slowly diminished and both groups are now considered part of Haredi Judaism. The Enlightenment and new religious movements Main articles: Haskalah and Jewish religious movements In the late 18th century CE, Europe was swept by a group of intellectual, social and political movements known as the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment led to reductions in the European laws that prohibited Jews to interact with the wider secular world, thus allowing Jews access to secular education and experience. A parallel Jewish movement, Haskalah or the "Jewish Enlightenment", began, especially in Central Europe and Western Europe, in response to both the Enlightenment and these new freedoms. It placed an emphasis on integration with secular society and a pursuit of non-religious knowledge through reason. With the promise of political emancipation many Jews saw no reason to continue to observe Jewish law and increasing numbers of Jews assimilated into Christian Europe. Modern religious movements of Judaism all formed in reaction to this trend. In Central Europe, followed by Great Britain and the United States, Reform Judaism and Liberal Judaism developed, relaxing legal obligations (especially those that limited Jewish relations with non-Jews), emulating Protestant decorum in prayer, and emphasizing the ethical values of Judaism's Prophetic tradition. Modern Orthodox Judaism developed in reaction to Reform Judaism, by leaders who argued that Jews could participate in public life as citizens equal to Christians, while maintaining the observance of Jewish law. Meanwhile, in the United States, wealthy Reform Jews helped European scholars, who were Orthodox in practice but critical (and skeptical) in their study of the Bible and Talmud, to establish a seminary to train rabbis for immigrants from Eastern Europe. These left-wing Orthodox rabbis were joined by right-wing Reform rabbis who felt that Jewish law should not be entirely abandoned, to form the Conservative movement. Orthodox Jews who opposed the Haskalah formed Haredi Orthodox Judaism. After massive movements of Jews following The Holocaust and the creation of the state of Israel, these movements have competed for followers from among traditional Jews in or from other countries. Spectrum of observance   Judaism has spread to all corners of the world. Seen here is a synagogue in downtown Mumbai. Countries such as the United States, Israel, Canada, United Kingdom, Argentina and South Africa contain large Jewish populations. Jewish religious practice varies widely through all levels of observance. According to the 2001 edition of the National Jewish Population Survey, in the United States' Jewish community—the world's second largest—4.3 million Jews out of 5.1 million had some sort of connection to the religion. Of that population of connected Jews, 80% participated in some sort of Jewish religious observance, but only 48% belonged to a synagogue, and fewer than 16% attend regularly.[104] Birth rates for American Jews have dropped from 2.0 to 1.7.[105] (Replacement rate is 2.1.) Intermarriage rates range from 40-50% in the US, and only about a third of children of intermarried couples are raised as Jews. Due to intermarriage and low birth rates, the Jewish population in the US shrank from 5.5 million in 1990 to 5.1 million in 2001. This is indicative of the general population trends among the Jewish community in the Diaspora, but a focus on total population obscures growth trends in some denominations and communities, such as Haredi Judaism. The Baal teshuva movement is a movement of Jews who have "returned" to religion or become more observant. Judaism and other religions  Christianity and Judaism Main article: Christianity and Judaism See also: Judeo-Christian, Christianity and antisemitism, Judaism's view of Jesus, Cultural and historical background of Jesus, and Christian-Jewish reconciliation 	This section requires expansion. Historians and theologians regularly review the changing relationship between some Christian groups and the Jewish people; the article on Christian-Jewish reconciliation studies one recent issue. Islam and Judaism Main article: Islam and Judaism See also: History of the Jews under Muslim rule and Islam and antisemitism The relationship between Islam and Judaism is special and close. Both religions claim to arise from the patriarch Abraham, and are therefore considered Abrahamic religions. As fellow monotheists, Muslims view Jews as "people of the book", a term that Jews have subsequently adopted as a way of describing their own connection to the Torah and other holy texts.[106] In turn, many Jews maintain that Muslims adhere to the Seven Laws of Noah. Thus, Judaism views Muslims as righteous people of God.[107] Jews have interacted with Muslims since the 7th century, when Islam originated and spread in the Arabian peninsula, and many aspects of Islam's core values, structure, jurisprudence and practice are based on Judaism.[108][109] Muslim culture and philosophy have heavily influenced practitioners of Judaism in the Islamic world.[110] In premodern Muslim countries, Jews rarely faced martyrdom, exile or forcible conversion, and were mostly free in their choice of residence and profession.[111] Indeed, the years 712 to 1066 CE under the Ummayad and the Abbasid rulers have been called the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain. Non-Muslim monotheists living in these countries, including Jews, were known as dhimmis. Dhimmis were allowed to practice their religion and to administer their internal affairs, but they were subject to certain restrictions that were not imposed on Muslims.[112] For example, they had to pay the jizya, a per capita tax imposed on free adult non-Muslim males,[112] and they were also forbidden to bear arms or testify in court cases involving Muslims.[113] Many of the laws regarding dhimmis were highly symbolic. For example, dhimmis in some countries were required to wear distinctive clothing, a practice not found in either the Qur'an or hadiths but invented in early medieval Baghdad and inconsistently enforced.[114] Jews in Muslim countries were not entirely free from persecution—for example, many were killed, exiled or forcibly converted in the 12th century, in Persia and by the rulers of the Almohad dynasty in North Africa and Al-Andalus.[115] At times, Jews were also restricted in their choice of residence—in Morocco, Jews were confined to walled quarters (mellahs) beginning in the 15th century and increasingly since the early 19th century.[116] In the late 20th century, Jews were expelled from nearly all the Arab countries. Most have chosen to live in Israel. Today, antisemitic themes have become commonplace in the propaganda of Arab Islamic movements such as Hizbullah and Hamas, in the pronouncements of various agencies of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and even in the newspapers and other publications of Refah Partisi.[117] Syncretic movements incorporating Judaism There are some movements that combine elements of Judaism with those of other religions. The most well-known of these is Messianic Judaism, which arose in the 1960s.[118][119][120][121] It blends evangelical Christian theology with elements of Jewish terminology and ritual.[121][122][123][124][125] The movement states that Jesus is part of the Trinity,[126][127] and salvation is only achieved through acceptance of Jesus as one's savior.[128] Some members of the movement are ethnically Jewish, and some of them argue that Messianic Judaism is a sect of Judaism.[129] Jewish organizations and religious movements reject this, stating that Messianic Judaism is a Christian sect.[130] The most controversial of these groups is the American organization Jews for Jesus, which actively proselytizes ethnic Jews through numerous missionary campaigns in major American cities. Other examples of syncretism include Judeo-Paganists, a loosely organized set of Jews who incorporate pagan or Wiccan beliefs with some Jewish religious practices, like Messianic Judaism; Jewish Buddhists, another loosely organized group that incorporates elements of Asian spirituality in their faith; and some Renewal Jews who borrow freely and openly from Buddhism, Sufism, Native American religion, and other faiths. The Kabbalah Centre, which employs teachers from multiple religions, is a New Age movement that claims to popularize the kabbalah, the Jewish esoteric tradition. See also  	Judaism portal 	Religion portal 	Book: Abrahamic religions Book: Judaism Wikipedia books are collections of articles that can be downloaded or ordered in print. Main article: Outline of Judaism Anti-Judaism Frankism Jewish views of religious pluralism Judaism by country List of converts to Judaism Sabbateanism Secular Jewish culture Criticism of Judaism United States military chaplain symbols  References  ^ Methods and Categories: Judaism and Gospel ^ AskOxford: Judaism ^ Shaye J.D. Cohen 1999 The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties, Berkeley: University of California Press; p. 7 ^ Jacobs, Louis (2007). "Judaism". In Fred Skolnik. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 11 (2d ed.). Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. p. 511. ISBN 9780-02-865928-2. "Judaism, the religion, philosophy, and way of life of the Jews." ^ "Knowledge Resources: Judaism". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved 2011-11-22. ^ "What is the oral Torah?". Torah.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "Karaite Jewish University". Kjuonline.com. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "Society for Humanistic Judaism". Shj.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "Religion & Ethics - Judaism". BBC. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Religion: Three Religions, One God PBS ^ Settings of silver: an introduction to Judaism p. 59 by Stephen M. Wylen, Paulist Press, 2000 [1] ^ Heribert Busse (1998). Islam, Judaism, and Christianity: Theological and Historical Affiliations. Markus Wiener Publishers. pp. 63–112. ISBN 9781558761445. ^ Irving M. Zeitlin (2007). The Historical Muhammad. Polity. pp. 92–93. ISBN 9780745639994. ^ Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate (book) ^ See, for example, Deborah Dash Moore, American Jewish Identity Politics, University of Michigan Press, 2008, p. 303; Ewa Morawska, Insecure Prosperity: Small-Town Jews in Industrial America, 1890-1940, Princeton University Press, 1999. p. 217; Peter Y. Medding, Values, interests and identity: Jews and politics in a changing world, Volume 11 of Studies in contemporary Jewry, Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 64; Ezra Mendelsohn, People of the city: Jews and the urban challenge, Volume 15 of Studies in contemporary Jewry, Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 55; Louis Sandy Maisel, Ira N. Forman, Donald Altschiller, Charles Walker Bassett, Jews in American politics: essays, Rowman & Littlefield, 2004, p. 158; Seymour Martin Lipset, American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword, W. W. Norton & Company, 1997, p. 169. ^ World Jewish Population, 2010. Sergio Della Pergola, Hebrew University of Jerusalem ^ "Jewish Denominations". ReligionFacts. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "Reform Judaism". ReligionFacts. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "What is Reform Judaism?". Reformjudaism.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Britannica Online Encyclopedia: Bet Din". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ a b "Judaism 101: Rabbis, Priests and Other Religious Functionaries". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Nahum Sarna 1969 Understanding Genesis. New York: Schocken ^ Jacob Neusner, ''Defining Judaism'', in Jacob Neusner and Alan Avery-Peck, "The Blackwell companion to Judaism" (Blackwell, 2003), p.3. Books.google.com.au. 2003-02-23. ISBN 9781577180593. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Gen.  17:3-8 Genesis 17: 3-8: Abram fell facedown, and God said to him, "As for me, this is my covenant with you: You will be the father of many nations. No longer will you be called Abram ; your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a father of many nations. I will make you very fruitful; I will make nations of you, and kings will come from you. I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for the generations to come, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you. The whole land of Canaan, where you are now an alien, I will give as an everlasting possession to you and your descendants after you; and I will be their God;" Gen.  22:17-18 Genesis 22: 17-18: I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, and through your offspring all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed me." ^ Exodus 20:3 "You shall have no other gods before me; Deut.  6:5 Deuteronomy 6:5 "Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength." ^ Lev.  19:18 Leviticus 19:18: "'Do not seek revenge or bear a grudge against one of your people, but love your neighbor as yourself. I am the Lord" ^ Kadushin, Max, 1972 The Rabbinic Mind. New York: Bloch Publishing Company. 194 ^ Kadushin, Max, 1972 The Rabbinic Mind. New York: Bloch Publishing Company. 203 ^ The Books of Melachim (Kings) and Book of Yeshaiahu (Isaiah) in the Tanakh contain a few of the many Biblical accounts of Israelite kings and segments of ancient Israel's population worshiping other gods. For example: King Solomon's "wives turned away his heart after other gods...[and he] did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD" (elaborated in 1 Melachim 11:4-10); King Ahab "went and served Baal, and worshiped him...And Ahab made the Asherah [a pagan place of worship]; and Ahab did yet more to provoke the LORD, the God of Israel, than all the kings of Israel that were before him" (1 Melachim 16:31-33); the prophet Isaiah condemns the people who "prepare a table for [the idol] Fortune, and that offer mingled wine in full measure unto [the idol] Destiny" (Yeshaiahu 65:11-12). Translation: JPS (Jewish Publication Society) edition of the Tanakh, from 1917, available at Mechon Mamre. ^ The Jewish roots of Christological monotheism: papers from the St. Andrews conference on the historical origins of the worship of Jesus. Books.google.com. 1999. ISBN 9789004113619. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Steinberg, Milton 1947 Basic Judaism New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 36 ^ "Judaism 101: Movements of Judaism". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Rabbi S. of Montpelier, Yad Rama, Y. Alfacher, Rosh Amanah. ^ "Maimonides’ 13 Foundations of Judaism". Mesora. "However if he rejects one of these fundamentals he leaves the nation and is a denier of the fundamentals and is called a heretic, a denier, etc." ^ Rabbi Mordechai Blumenfeld. "Maimonides, 13 Principles of Faith". Aish HaTorah. "According to the Rambam, their acceptance defines the minimum requirement necessary for one to relate to the Almighty and His Torah as a member of the People of Israel" ^ a b c Daniel Septimus. "The Thirteen Principles of Faith". MyJewishLearning.com. ^ Ronald L. Eisenberg (2004). The JPS guide to Jewish traditions. Jewish Publication Society. p. 509. ISBN 0827607601. "The concept of "dogma" is ... not a basic idea in Judaism." ^ Dogma in Medieval Jewish Thought, Menachem Kellner. ^ "The Thirteen Principles of the Jewish Faith". Hebrew4Christians. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "What Do Jews Believe?". Mechon Mamre. "The closest that anyone has ever come to creating a widely accepted list of Jewish beliefs is Maimonides' thirteen principles of faith." ^ The JPS guide to Jewish traditions, page 510, "The one that eventually secured almost universal acceptance was the Thirteen Principles of faith" ^ "Judaism 101: What Do Jews Believe?". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "Description of Judaism, Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance". Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "Judaism 101: The Patriarchs and the Origins of Judaism". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Rietti, Rabbi Jonathan. "How Do You Know the Exodus Really Happened?". Archived from the original on 2004-09-18. The word "emunah" has been translated incorrectly by the King James Bible as merely "belief" or "faith", when in actuality, it means conviction, which is a much more emphatic knowledge of God based on experience. ^ "Jewish Sacred Texts". ReligionFacts. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ M. San 10:1. Translation available here [2]. ^ "Judaism 101: A Glossary of Basic Jewish Terms and Concepts". Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations in America. April 12, 2006. ^ The Prayer book: Weekday, Sabbath, and Festival translated and arranged by Ben Zion Bokser. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company. 9-10 ^ Kadushin, Max 1972 The Rabbinic Mind New York: Bloch Publishing. 213 ^ Neusner, Jacob 2003 Invitation to the Talmud Stipf and Son, Oregon xvii-xxii ^ Stern, David "Midrash and Indeterminacy" in Critical Inquiry, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Autumn, 1988), p. 151. ^ Neusner, Jacob 2003 Invitation to the Talmud Stipf and Son, Oregon xvii-vix; Steinsaltz, Adin 1976 The Essential Talmud New York: Basic Books. 3-9; Strack, Hermann 1980 Introduction to the Midrash and Talmud New York: Atheneum. 95; Stern, David "Midrash and Indeterminacy" in Critical Inquiry, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Autumn, 1988), pp. 132-161 ^ Stern, David "Midrash and Indeterminacy" in Critical Inquiry, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Autumn, 1988), p. 147. ^ Cohen, Abner 1949 Everyman's Talmud New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. xxiv; Strack, Hermann 1980 Introduction to the Midrash and Talmud New York: Atheneum. 95 ^ Cohen, Abner 1949 Everyman's Talmud New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. xxiv; Steinsaltz, Adin 1976 The Essential Talmud New Yorki: Basic Books. 222; Strack, Hermann 1980 Introduction to the Midrash and Talmud New York: Atheneum. 95 ^ Strack, Hermann 1980 Introduction to the Midrash and Talmud New York: Atheneum. 95 ^ סדור רינת ישראל לבני חוײל Jerusalem: 1974, pp. 38-39 ^ Chief Rabbi Sir Jonathan Sacks, 2006 The Koren Sacks Siddur: Hebrew/English Prayer Book: The Authorized Daily Prayer Book of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth London: Harper Collins Publishers pp. 54-55 ^ Nosson Scherman 2003 The Complete Artscroll Siddur Third Edition Brooklyn, N.Y.: Mesorah Publications pp. 49-53 ^ Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi, Nissen Mangel, 2003 Siddur Tehillat Hashem Kehot Publication Society. 24-25 ^ "Methods and Categories: Judaism and Gospel". Bibleinterp.com. 2007-11-06. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ AskOxford: Judaism[dead link] ^ Oscar Sakrsaune, "In the Shadow of the Temple: Jewish Influences on Early Christianity"InterVarsity Press, 2002, PP.39FF. Books.google.com.au. 2002. ISBN 9780830826704. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary. ^ Boyarin, Daniel (October 14, 1994). "Introduction". A radical Jew: Paul and the politics of identity. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. pp. 13–38. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0-520-08592-2 LCCN 93-36269|0-520-08592-2 LCCN 93-36269]]. Retrieved 2006-06-15. "Paul was motivated by a Hellenistic desire for the One, which among other things produced an ideal of a universal human essence, beyond difference and hierarchy. This universal humanity, however, was predicated (and still is) on the dualism of the flesh and the spirit, such that while the body is particular, marked through practice as Jew or Greek, and through anatomy as male or female, the spirit is universal. Paul did not, however, reject the body—as did, for instance, the gnostics—but rather promoted a system whereby the body had its place, albeit subordinated to the spirit. Paul's anthropological dualism was matched by a hermeneutical dualism as well. Just as the human being is divided into a fleshy and a spiritual component, so also is language itself. It is composed of outer, material signs and inner, spiritual significations. When this is applied to the religious system that Paul inherited, the physical, fleshy signs of the Torah, of historical Judaism, are re-interpreted as symbols of that which Paul takes to be universal requirements and possibilities for humanity." ^ Boyarin, Daniel (1994). "Answering the Mail". A radical Jew: Paul and the politics of identity. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08592-2. "Jewishness disrupts the very categories of identity, because it is not national, not genealogical, not religious, but all of these, in dialectical tension with one another." ^ Weiner, Rebecca (2007). "Who is a Jew?". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2007-10-06. ^ "''Reform's Position On...What is unacceptable practice?''". Faqs.org. 2010-06-29. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Heschel, Susannah (1998) Abraham Geiger and the Jewish Jesus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 157. ISBN 0-226-32959-3 ^ "Law of Return 5710-1950". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22. ^ Jacob, Walter (1987). Contemporary American Reform Responsa. Mars, PA: Publishers Choice Book Mfg.. Books.google.com. 1987. ISBN 0881230030. Retrieved 2011-09-28. ^ Robert Gordis. "Torah MiSinai:Conservative Views". A Modern Approach to a Living Halachah. Masorti World. Archived from the original on 2007-07-13. "The Torah is an emanation of God... This conception does not mean, for us, that the process of revalation consisted of dictation by God." ^ "Conservative Judaism". Jewlicious. "We therefore understand this term as a metaphor to mean that the Torah is divine and that it reflects God’s will." ^ "Tefillin", "The Book of Jewish Knowledge", Nathan Ausubel, Crown Publishers, NY, 1964, p.458) ^ "Shabbat". Judaism 101. April 12, 2006. ^ a b c d e f g "Judaism 101: Kashrut". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Chaya Shuchat. "The Kosher Pig?". "It is also the most quintessentially “treif” of animals, with its name being nearly synonymous with non-kosher ... Although far from alone in the litany of non-kosher animals, the pig seems to stand in a class of its own." ^ "Tamar Levy, St. Louis, MO – Block Yeshiva High School, Grade 9". OUkosher.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah, (87:3) ^ Elliot Dorff, "On the Use of All Wines"PDF (2.19 MB), YD 123:1.1985, pp. 11–15. ^ "Kashrut Facts". Religionfacts.com. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "Judaism 101: Kashrut: Jewish Dietary Laws". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Vayyiqra (Leviticus) 11 ^ Rice, Yisrael (2007-06-10). "Judaism and the Art of Eating". Chabad. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Jewish life in WWII England: "there was a...special dispensation...that allowed Jews serving in the armed services to eat "non-kosher" when no Jewish food was available; that deviation from halacha was allowed 'in order to save a human life including your own.'" ^ Y. Lichtenshtein M.A.. "Weekly Pamphlet #805". Bar-Ilan University, Faculty of Jewish Studies, Rabbinical office. "...certain prohibitions become allowed without a doubt because of lifethreatening circumstances, like for example eating non-kosher food" ^ a b Vayyiqra (Leviticus) 15. ^ Bamidbar (Numbers) 19. ^ Avi Kehat. "Torah tidbits". Ou.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ a b "Judaism 101: Kosher Sex". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ "Karaites". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Wasserfall, Rahel (1999). Women and water: menstruation in Jewish life and law. Brandeis University Press. ISBN 0874519608. ^ Yehezkal Kauffman, The Religion of Israel ^ Robert Alter The Art of Biblical Poetry ^ E. A. Speiser Genesis (The Anchor Bible) ^ John Bright A History of Israel ^ Martin Noth The History of Israel ^ Ephraim Urbach The Sages ^ Shaye Cohen The beginnings of Jewishness ^ John Day Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan, page 68. ^ Langmuir, Gavin (1993). History, religion, and antisemitism. University of California Press. ISBN 0520077288. ^ ""The Maggid of Mezritch" Chapter 7 - Opposition Intensifies". Nishmas.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ http://www.harrisinteractive.com/vault/Harris-Interactive-Poll-Research-While-Most-Americans-Believe-in-God-Only-36-pct-A-2003-10.pdf Religious service attendance at least once a month ^ This is My Beloved, This is My Friend: A Rabbinic Letter on Intimate relations, p. 27, Elliot N. Dorff ^ Hence for example such books as People of the Book: Thirty Scholars Reflect on Their Jewish Identity (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997) and People of the Book: Canon, Meaning, and Authority (Harvard University Press, 1997). ^ "Jewish Rabbi admits Islam is the oldest religion". YouTube. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Prager, D; Telushkin, J. Why the Jews?: The Reason for Antisemitism. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983. page 110-126. ^ Jewish-Muslim Relations, Past & Present, Rabbi David Rosen ^ "The Golden Age of Arab-Jewish Coexistence, The Golden Era". The Peace FAQ. 1998-09-01. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ^ Lewis (1999), p.131; (1984), pp.8,62 ^ a b Lewis (1984), pp.10,20 ^ Lewis (1987), p. 9, 27 ^ Lewis (1999), p.131 ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 17, 18, 52, 94, 95; Stillman (1979), pp. 27, 77 ^ Lewis (1984), p. 28 ^ Muslim Anti-Semitism by Bernard Lewis (Middle East Quarterly) June 1998 ^ Feher, Shoshanah. Passing over Easter: Constructing the Boundaries of Messianic Judaism, Rowman Altamira, 1998, ISBN 9780761989530, p. 140. "This interest in developing a Jewish ethnic identity may not be surprising when we consider the 1960s, when Messianic Judaism arose." ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2006). "Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism". In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 191. ISBN 978-0275987145. LCCN 2006022954. OCLC 315689134. "In the late 1960s and 1970s, both Jews and Christians in the United States were surprised to see the rise of a vigorous movement of Jewish Christians or Christian Jews." ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2006). "Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism". In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 194. ISBN 978-0275987145. LCCN 2006022954. OCLC 315689134. "The Rise of Messianic Judaism. In the first phase of the movement, during the early and mid-1970s, Jewish converts to Christianity established several congregations at their own initiative. Unlike the previous communities of Jewish Christians, Messianic Jewish congregations were largely independent of control from missionary societies or Christian denominations, even though they still wanted the acceptance of the larger evangelical community." ^ a b Melton, J. Gordon. Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Infobase Publishing, 2005, ISBN 9780816054565, p. 373. "Messianic Judaism is a Protestant movement that emerged in the last half of the 20th century among believers who were ethnically Jewish but had adopted an Evangelical Christian faith... By the 1960s, a new effort to create a culturally Jewish Protestant Christianity emerged among individuals who began to call themselves Messianic Jews." ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2006). "Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism". In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 191. ISBN 978-0275987145. LCCN 2006022954. OCLC 315689134. "While Christianity started in the first century of the Common Era as a Jewish group, it quickly separated from Judaism and claimed to replace it; ever since the relationship between the two traditions has often been strained. But in the twentieth century groups of young Jews claimed that they had overcome the historical differences between the two religions and amalgamated Jewish identity and customs with the Christian faith." ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2006). "Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism". In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-0275987145. LCCN 2006022954. OCLC 315689134. "When the term resurfaced in Israel in the 1940s and 1950s, it designated all Jews who accepted Christianity in its Protestant evangelical form. Missionaries such as the Southern Baptist Robert Lindsey noted that for Israeli Jews, the term nozrim, "Christians" in Hebrew, meant, almost automatically, an alien, hostile religion. Because such a term made it nearly impossible to convince Jews that Christianity was their religion, missionaries sought a more neutral term, one that did not arouse negative feelings. They chose Meshichyim, Messianic, to overcome the suspicion and antagonism of the term nozrim. Meshichyim as a term also had the advantage of emphasizing messianism as a major component of the Christian evangelical belief that the missions and communities of Jewish converts to Christianity propagated. It conveyed the sense of a new, innovative religion rather that[sic] an old, unfavorable one. The term was used in reference to those Jews who accepted Jesus as their personal savior, and did not apply to Jews accepting Roman Catholicism who in Israel have called themselves Hebrew Christians. The term Messianic Judaism was adopted in the United States in the early 1970s by those converts to evangelical Christianity who advocated a more assertive attitude on the part of converts towards their Jewish roots and heritage." ^ Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2000). "Messianic Jewish mission". Messianic Judaism. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 179. ISBN 9780826454584. OCLC 42719687. Retrieved August 10, 2010. "Evangelism of the Jewish people is thus at the heart of the Messianic movement." ^ Ariel, Yaakov S. (2000). "Chapter 20: The Rise of Messianic Judaism" (Google Books). Evangelizing the chosen people: missions to the Jews in America, 1880–2000. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 223. ISBN 9780807848807. OCLC 43708450. Retrieved August 10, 2010. "Messianic Judaism, although it advocated the idea of an independent movement of Jewish converts, remained the offspring of the missionary movement, and the ties would never be broken. The rise of Messianic Judaism was, in many ways, a logical outcome of the ideology and rhetoric of the movement to evangelize the Jews as well as its early sponsorship of various forms of Hebrew Christian expressions. The missions have promoted the message that Jews who had embraced Christianity were not betraying their heritage or even their faith but were actually fulfilling their true Jewish selves by becoming Christians. The missions also promoted the dispensationalist idea that the Church equals the body of the true Christian believers and that Christians were defined by their acceptance of Jesus as their personal Savior and not by their affiliations with specific denominations and particular liturgies or modes of prayer. Missions had been using Jewish symbols in their buildings and literature and called their centers by Hebrew names such as Emanuel or Beth Sar Shalom. Similarly, the missions' publications featured Jewish religious symbols and practices such as the lighting of a menorah. Although missionaries to the Jews were alarmed when they first confronted the more assertive and independent movement of Messianic Judaism, it was they who were responsible for its conception and indirectly for its birth. The ideology, rhetoric, and symbols they had promoted for generations provided the background for the rise of a new movement that missionaries at first rejected as going too far but later accepted and even embraced." ^ "What are the Standards of the UMJC?". FAQ. Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations. June 2004. Retrieved 2000-07-03. "1. We believe that there is one G-d, eternally existent in three persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit. 2. We believe in the deity of the L-RD Yeshua, the Messiah, in His virgin birth, in His sinless life, in His miracles, in His vicarious and atoning death through His shed blood, in His bodily resurrection, in His ascension to the right hand of the Father, and in His personal return in power and glory." ^ Israel b. Betzalel (2009). "Trinitarianism". JerusalemCouncil.org. Retrieved 2009-07-03. "This then is who Yeshua is: He is not just a man, and as a man, he is not from Adam, but from God. He is the Word of HaShem, the Memra, the Davar, the Righteous One, he didn’t become righteous, he is righteous. He is called God’s Son, he is the agent of HaShem called HaShem, and he is “HaShem” who we interact with and not die." ^ "Do I need to be Circumcised?". JerusalemCouncil.org. Feb 10, 2009. Retrieved August 18, 2010. "To convert to the Jewish sect of HaDerech, accepting Yeshua as your King is the first act after one’s heart turns toward HaShem and His Torah – as one can not obey a commandment of God if they first do not love God, and we love God by following his Messiah. Without first accepting Yeshua as the King and thus obeying Him, then getting circumcised for the purpose of Jewish conversion only gains you access to the Jewish community. It means nothing when it comes to inheriting a place in the World to Come....Getting circumcised apart from desiring to be obedient to HaShem, and apart from accepting Yeshua as your King, is nothing but a surgical procedure, or worse, could lead to you believe that Jewish identity grants you a portion in the World to Come – at which point, what good is Messiah Yeshua, the Word of HaShem to you? He would have died for nothing!...As a convert from the nations, part of your obligation in keeping the Covenant, if you are a male, is to get circumcised in fulfillment of the commandment regarding circumcision. Circumcision is not an absolute requirement of being a Covenant member (that is, being made righteous before HaShem, and thus obtaining eternal life), but it is a requirement of obedience to God’s commandments, because circumcision is commanded for those who are of the seed of Abraham, whether born into the family, adopted, or converted....If after reading all of this you understand what circumcision is, and that is an act of obedience, rather than an act of gaining favor before HaShem for the purpose of receiving eternal life, then if you are male believer in Yeshua the Messiah for the redemption from death, the consequence of your sin of rebellion against Him, then pursue circumcision, and thus conversion into Judaism, as an act of obedience to the Messiah." ^ "Jewish Conversion - Giyur". JerusalemCouncil.org. JerusalemCouncil.org. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-05. "We recognize the desire of people from the nations to convert to Judaism, through HaDerech (The Way)(Messianic Judaism), a sect of Judaism." ^ Orthodox Simmons, Shraga. "Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus". Aish HaTorah. Retrieved July 28, 2010. "Jews do not accept Jesus as the messiah because: #Jesus did not fulfill the messianic prophecies. #Jesus did not embody the personal qualifications of the Messiah. #Biblical verses "referring" to Jesus are mistranslations. #Jewish belief is based on national revelation." Conservative Waxman, Jonathan (2006). "Messianic Jews Are Not Jews". United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism. Archived from the original on June 28, 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-14. "Hebrew Christian, Jewish Christian, Jew for Jesus, Messianic Jew, Fulfilled Jew. The name may have changed over the course of time, but all of the names reflect the same phenomenon: one who asserts that s/he is straddling the theological fence between Christianity and Judaism, but in truth is firmly on the Christian side....we must affirm as did the Israeli Supreme Court in the well-known Brother Daniel case that to adopt Christianity is to have crossed the line out of the Jewish community." Reform "Missionary Impossible". Hebrew Union College. August 9, 1999. Retrieved 2007-02-14. "Missionary Impossible, an imaginative video and curriculum guide for teachers, educators, and rabbis to teach Jewish youth how to recognize and respond to "Jews-for-Jesus," "Messianic Jews," and other Christian proselytizers, has been produced by six rabbinic students at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion's Cincinnati School. The students created the video as a tool for teaching why Jewish college and high school youth and Jews in intermarried couples are primary targets of Christian missionaries." Reconstructionist/Renewal "FAQ's About Jewish Renewal". Aleph.org. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-20. "What is ALEPH's position on so called messianic Judaism? ALEPH has a policy of respect for other spiritual traditions, but objects to deceptive practices and will not collaborate with denominations which actively target Jews for recruitment. Our position on so-called "Messianic Judaism" is that it is Christianity and its proponents would be more honest to call it that." Bibliography  Marc Lee Raphael, "Judaism in America" (Columbia University Press, 2003) Avery-Peck, Alan, and Neusner, Jacob, (eds), "The Blackwell reader in Judaism" (Blackwell, 2001) Cohn-Sherbok, Dan, "Judaism: history, belief, and practice" (Routledge, 2003) Avery-Peck, Alan, and Neusner, Jacob, (eds), "The Blackwell Companion to Judaism (Blackwell, 2003) Boyarin, Daniel 1994 A Radical Jew: Paul and the Politics of Identity Berkeley: University of California Press Ancient Judaism, Max Weber, Free Press, 1967, ISBN 0-02-934130-2 Living Judaism: The Complete Guide to Jewish Belief, Tradition and Practice Wayne Dosick. Conservative Judaism: The New Century, Neil Gillman, Behrman House. American Jewish Orthodoxy in Historical Perspective Jeffrey S. Gurock, 1996, Ktav. Philosophies of Judaism Julius Guttmann, trans. by David Silverman, JPS. 1964 Back to the Sources: Reading the Classic Jewish Texts Ed. Barry W. Holtz, Summit Books A History of the Jews Paul Johnson, HarperCollins, 1988 A People Divided: Judaism in Contemporary America, Jack Wertheimer. Brandeis Univ. Press, 1997. Encyclopaedia Judaica, Keter Publishing, CD-ROM edition, 1997 The American Jewish Identity Survey, article by Egon Mayer, Barry Kosmin and Ariela Keysar; a sub-set of The American Religious Identity Survey, City University of New York Graduate Center. An article on this survey is printed in The New York Jewish Week, November 2, 2001. Lewis, Bernard. (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00807-8 Lewis, Bernard. (1999). Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-31839-7 Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 0-8276-0198-0 Day, John. Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan. Chippenham: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. Dever, William G. Did God Have a Wife?. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2005. Walsh, J.P.M. The Mighty From Their Thrones. Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1987. Finkelstein, Israel (1996). Ethinicity and Origin of the Iron I Settlers in the Highlands of Canaan: Can the Real Israel Please Stand Up? The Biblical Archaeologist, 59(4). Jews in Islamic countries: A. Khanbaghi. The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early Modern Iran (IB Tauris 2006). External links  Find more about Judaism on Wikipedia's sister projects: 	Definitions and translations from Wiktionary 	Images and media from Commons 	Learning resources from Wikiversity 	News stories from Wikinews 	Quotations from Wikiquote 	Source texts from Wikisource 	Textbooks from Wikibooks General Judaism 101, an extensive FAQ written by a librarian. Judaism article from the 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Shamash's Judaism resource page Orthodox/Haredi Orthodox Judaism - The Orthodox Union: Official website Chabad-Lubavitch: Official website The Various Types of Orthodox Judaism Aish HaTorah Ohr Somayach Traditional/Conservadox Union for Traditional Judaism Conservative The United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism: Official website Masorti (Conservative) Movement in Israel United Synagogue Youth Reform/Progressive The Union for Reform Judaism (USA) Reform Judaism (UK): Official website Liberal Judaism (UK): Official website World Union for Progressive Judaism (Israel): Official website Reconstructionist Jewish Reconstructionist Federation: Official website Renewal ALEPH: Alliance for Jewish Renewal: Official website OHALAH Association of Rabbis for Jewish Renewal: Official website Humanistic Society for Humanistic Judaism: Official website Karaite World Movement for Karaite Judaism Jewish religious literature and texts Complete Tanakh (in Hebrew, with vowels). English Tanakh from the 1917 Jewish Publication Society version. The Judaica Press Complete Tanach with Rashi in English Torah.org. (also known as Project Genesis) Contains Torah commentaries and studies of Tanakh, along with Jewish ethics, philosophy, holidays and other classes. The complete formatted Talmud online. Audio files of lectures for each page from an Orthodox viewpoint are provided in French, English, Yiddish and Hebrew. Reload the page for an image of a page of the Talmud. See also Torah database for links to more Judaism e-texts. Wikimedia Torah study projects 	Wikisource has original text related to this article: Pentateuch Text study projects at Wikisource. In many instances, the Hebrew versions of these projects are more fully developed than the English. Mikraot Gedolot (Rabbinic Bible) in Hebrew (sample) and English (sample). Cantillation at the "Vayavinu Bamikra" Project in Hebrew (lists nearly 200 recordings) and English. Mishnah in Hebrew (sample) and English (sample). Shulchan Aruch in Hebrew and English (Hebrew text with English translation). [show]  Links to related articles View page ratings Rate this page What's this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional)  Submit ratings Categories: JudaismMonotheistic religions Log in / create accountArticleTalkReadView sourceView history  Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox Print/export Languages Acèh Afrikaans Alemannisch አማርኛ العربية Aragonés ܐܪܡܝܐ Arpetan Asturianu Azərbaycanca বাংলা Bân-lâm-gú Башҡортса Беларуская ‪Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‬ Български Boarisch བོད་ཡིག Bosanski Brezhoneg Català Чӑвашла Cebuano Česky Corsu Cymraeg Dansk Deitsch Deutsch ދިވެހިބަސް Eesti Ελληνικά Español Esperanto Estremeñu Euskara فارسی Fiji Hindi Føroyskt Français Frysk Furlan Gaeilge Gàidhlig Galego Hak-kâ-fa 한국어 Հայերեն हिन्दी Hrvatski Ido Igbo Bahasa Indonesia Interlingua Interlingue Ирон Íslenska Italiano עברית Basa Jawa Kalaallisut ಕನ್ನಡ Къарачай-Малкъар ქართული Қазақша Kernowek Kiswahili Kreyòl ayisyen Kurdî Кыргызча Ladino Лакку Latina Latviešu Lietuvių Ligure Limburgs Lingála Magyar Македонски Malagasy മലയാളം Malti मराठी مصرى مازِرونی Bahasa Melayu Mirandés မြန်မာဘာသာ Nāhuatl Nederlands Nedersaksisch नेपाल भाषा 日本語 Nnapulitano Norfuk / Pitkern ‪Norsk (bokmål)‬ ‪Norsk (nynorsk)‬ Nouormand Occitan O'zbek پنجابی Papiamentu پښتو Tok Pisin Plattdüütsch Polski Português Qırımtatarca Ripoarisch Română Rumantsch Runa Simi Русиньскый Русский Саха тыла Scots Seeltersk Sesotho sa Leboa Shqip Sicilianu Simple English Slovenčina Slovenščina Ślůnski Soomaaliga Српски / Srpski Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски Suomi Svenska Tagalog தமிழ் Taqbaylit Татарча/Tatarça తెలుగు ไทย Türkçe Українська اردو ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche‎ Tiếng Việt Võro 文言 Winaray ייִדיש 粵語 Zazaki Žemaitėška 中文 This page was last modified on 28 February 2012 at 15:45. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Contact us Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersMobile view  Spider-Man From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Peter Parker" redirects here. For other uses, see Peter Parker (disambiguation). This article is about the superhero. For other uses, see Spider-Man (disambiguation).  Spider-Man  From The Amazing Spider-Man #547 (March 2008) Art by Steve McNiven and Dexter Vines Publication information Publisher	Marvel Comics First appearance	Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962) Created by	Stan Lee Steve Ditko In-story information Alter ego	Peter Benjamin Parker Species	Human Mutate Team affiliations	Daily Bugle Front Line New Fantastic Four Avengers New Avengers Future Foundation Heroes for Hire Partnerships	Venom Scarlet Spider Wolverine Human Torch Daredevil Black Cat Punisher Toxin Iron Man Ms. Marvel Notable aliases	Ricochet, Dusk, Prodigy, Hornet, Ben Reilly/Scarlet Spider Abilities	 Superhuman strength, speed, agility, and endurance Healing factor Ability to cling to most surfaces Able to shoot extremely strong spider-web strings from wrists Precognitive Spider-Sense Genius-level intellect Master hand-to-hand combatant Spider-Man is a fictional character, a Marvel Comics superhero created by writer-editor Stan Lee and writer-artist Steve Ditko. He first appeared in Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962). Lee and Ditko conceived of the character as an orphan being raised by his Aunt May and Uncle Ben, and as a teenager, having to deal with the normal struggles of adolescence in addition to those of a costumed crime fighter. Spider-Man's creators gave him super strength and agility, the ability to cling to most surfaces, shoot spider-webs using devices of his own invention which he called "web-shooters", and react to danger quickly with his "spider-sense", enabling him to combat his foes. When Spider-Man first appeared in the early 1960s, teenagers in superhero comic books were usually relegated to the role of sidekick to the protagonist. The Spider-Man series broke ground by featuring Peter Parker, a teenage high school student and person behind Spider-Man's secret identity to whose "self-obsessions with rejection, inadequacy, and loneliness" young readers could relate.[1] Unlike previous teen heroes such as Bucky and Robin, Spider-Man did not benefit from being the protégé of any adult superhero mentors like Captain America and Batman, and thus had to learn for himself that "with great power there must also come great responsibility"—a line included in a text box in the final panel of the first Spider-Man story, but later retroactively attributed to his guardian, the late Uncle Ben. Marvel has featured Spider-Man in several comic book series, the first and longest-lasting of which is titled The Amazing Spider-Man. Over the years, the Peter Parker character has developed from shy, nerdy high school student to troubled but outgoing college student, to married high school teacher to, in the late 2000s, a single freelance photographer, his most typical adult role. As of 2011, he is additionally a member of the Avengers and the Fantastic Four, Marvel's flagship superhero teams. In the comics, Spider-Man is often referred to as "Spidey", "web-slinger", "wall-crawler", or "web-head". Spider-Man is one of the most popular and commercially successful superheroes.[2] As Marvel's flagship character and company mascot, he has appeared in many forms of media, including several animated and live-action television shows, syndicated newspaper comic strips, and a series of films starring Tobey Maguire as the "friendly neighborhood" hero in the first three movies. Andrew Garfield will take over the role of Spider-Man in a planned reboot of the films.[3] Reeve Carney stars as Spider-Man in the 2010 Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark.[4] Spider-Man placed 3rd on IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time in 2011.[5] Contents  [hide]  1 Publication history 1.1 Creation and development 1.2 Commercial success 2 Comic book character 2.1 Personality 3 Other versions 4 Powers and equipment 5 Supporting characters 5.1 Enemies 6 Cultural influence 7 In other media 8 Awards and honors 9 See also 9.1 Selected story arcs 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links Publication history  Creation and development   Richard Wentworth a.k.a. the Spider in the pulp magazine The Spider. Stan Lee stated that it was the name of this character that inspired him to create a character that would become Spider-Man.[6] In 1962, with the success of the Fantastic Four, Marvel Comics editor and head writer Stan Lee was casting about for a new superhero idea. He said the idea for Spider-Man arose from a surge in teenage demand for comic books, and the desire to create a character with whom teens could identify.[7]:1 In his autobiography, Lee cites the non-superhuman pulp magazine crime fighter the Spider (see also The Spider's Web and The Spider Returns) as a great influence,[6]:130 and in a multitude of print and video interviews, Lee stated he was further inspired by seeing a spider climb up a wall—adding in his autobiography that he has told that story so often he has become unsure of whether or not this is true.[note 1] Looking back on the creation of Spider-Man, 1990s Marvel editor-in-chief Tom DeFalco stated he did not believe that Spider-Man would have been given a chance in today's comics world, where new characters are vetted with test audiences and marketers.[7]:9 At that time, however, Lee had to get only the consent of Marvel publisher Martin Goodman for the character's approval.[7]:9 In a 1986 interview, Lee described in detail his arguments to overcome Goodman's objections.[note 2] Goodman eventually agreed to let Lee try out Spider-Man in the upcoming final issue of the canceled science-fiction and supernatural anthology series Amazing Adult Fantasy, which was renamed Amazing Fantasy for that single issue, #15 (Aug. 1962).[8]:95 Comics historian Greg Theakston says that Lee, after receiving Goodman's approval for the name Spider-Man and the "ordinary teen" concept, approached artist Jack Kirby. Kirby told Lee about an unpublished character on which he collaborated with Joe Simon in the 1950s, in which an orphaned boy living with an old couple finds a magic ring that granted him superhuman powers. Lee and Kirby "immediately sat down for a story conference" and Lee afterward directed Kirby to flesh out the character and draw some pages. Steve Ditko would be the inker.[note 3] When Kirby showed Lee the first six pages, Lee recalled, "I hated the way he was doing it! Not that he did it badly—it just wasn't the character I wanted; it was too heroic".[9]:12 Lee turned to Ditko, who developed a visual style Lee found satisfactory. Ditko recalled: One of the first things I did was to work up a costume. A vital, visual part of the character. I had to know how he looked ... before I did any breakdowns. For example: A clinging power so he wouldn't have hard shoes or boots, a hidden wrist-shooter versus a web gun and holster, etc. ... I wasn't sure Stan would like the idea of covering the character's face but I did it because it hid an obviously boyish face. It would also add mystery to the character....[10] Although the interior artwork was by Ditko alone, Lee rejected Ditko's cover art and commissioned Kirby to pencil a cover that Ditko inked.[11] As Lee explained in 2010, "I think I had Jack sketch out a cover for it because I always had a lot of confidence in Jack's covers."[12] In an early recollection of the character's creation, Ditko described his and Lee's contributions in a mail interview with Gary Martin published in Comic Fan #2 (Summer 1965): "Stan Lee thought the name up. I did costume, web gimmick on wrist & spider signal."[13] At the time, Ditko shared a Manhattan studio with noted fetish artist Eric Stanton, an art-school classmate who, in a 1988 interview with Theakston, recalled that although his contribution to Spider-Man was "almost nil", he and Ditko had "worked on storyboards together and I added a few ideas. But the whole thing was created by Steve on his own... I think I added the business about the webs coming out of his hands".[9]:14 Kirby disputed Lee's version of the story, and claimed Lee had minimal involvement in the character's creation. According to Kirby, the idea for Spider-Man had originated with Kirby and Joe Simon, who in the 1950s had developed a character called the Silver Spider for the Crestwood Publications comic Black Magic, who was subsequently not used.[note 4] Simon, in his 1990 autobiography, disputed Kirby's account, asserting that Black Magic was not a factor, and that he (Simon) devised the name "Spider-Man" (later changed to "The Silver Spider"), while Kirby outlined the character's story and powers. Simon later elaborated that his and Kirby's character conception became the basis for Simon's Archie Comics superhero the Fly. Artist Steve Ditko stated that Lee liked the name Hawkman from DC Comics, and that "Spider-Man" was an outgrowth of that interest.[10] Simon concurred that Kirby had shown the original Spider-Man version to Lee, who liked the idea and assigned Kirby to draw sample pages of the new character but disliked the results—in Simon's description, "Captain America with cobwebs".[note 5] Writer Mark Evanier notes that Lee's reasoning that Kirby's character was too heroic seems unlikely—Kirby still drew the covers for Amazing Fantasy #15 and the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man. Evanier also disputes Kirby's given reason that he was "too busy" to also draw Spider-Man in addition to his other duties since Kirby was, said Evanier, "always busy".[14]:127 Neither Lee's nor Kirby's explanation explains why key story elements like the magic ring were dropped; Evanier states that the most plausible explanation for the sudden change was that Goodman, or one of his assistants, decided that Spider-Man as drawn and envisioned by Kirby was too similar to the Fly.[14]:127 Author and Ditko scholar Blake Bell writes that it was Ditko who noted the similarities to the Fly. Ditko recalled that, "Stan called Jack about the Fly", adding that "[d]ays later, Stan told me I would be penciling the story panel breakdowns from Stan's synopsis". It was at this point that the nature of the strip changed. "Out went the magic ring, adult Spider-Man and whatever legend ideas that Spider-Man story would have contained". Lee gave Ditko the premise of a teenager bitten by a spider and developing powers, a premise Ditko would expand upon to the point he became what Bell describes as "the first work for hire artist of his generation to create and control the narrative arc of his series". On the issue of the initial creation, Ditko states, "I still don't know whose idea was Spider-Man".[15] Kirby noted in a 1971 interview that it was Ditko who "got Spider-Man to roll, and the thing caught on because of what he did".[16] Lee, while claiming credit for the initial idea, has acknowledged Ditko's role, stating, "If Steve wants to be called co-creator, I think he deserves [it]".[17] Writer Al Nickerson believes "that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko created the Spider-Man that we are familiar with today [but that] ultimately, Spider-Man came into existence, and prospered, through the efforts of not just one or two, but many, comic book creators".[18] In 2008, an anonymous donor bequeathed the Library of Congress the original 24 pages of Ditko art of Amazing Fantasy #15, including Spider-Man's debut and the stories "The Bell-Ringer", "Man in the Mummy Case", and "There Are Martians Among Us".[19] Commercial success   Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962). The issue that first introduced the fictional character. It was a gateway to the commercial success to the superhero and inspired the launch of The Amazing Spider-Man comics. Cover art by Jack Kirby (penciller) & Steve Ditko (inker).[8] A few months after Spider-Man's introduction in Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962), publisher Martin Goodman reviewed the sales figures for that issue and was shocked to find it to have been one of the nascent Marvel's highest-selling comics.[8]:97 A solo ongoing series followed, beginning with The Amazing Spider-Man #1 (March 1963). The title eventually became Marvel's top-selling series[1]:211 with the character swiftly becoming a cultural icon; a 1965 Esquire poll of college campuses found that college students ranked Spider-Man and fellow Marvel hero the Hulk alongside Bob Dylan and Che Guevara as their favorite revolutionary icons. One interviewee selected Spider-Man because he was "beset by woes, money problems, and the question of existence. In short, he is one of us."[1]:223 Following Ditko's departure after issue #38 (July 1966), John Romita, Sr. replaced him as penciler and would draw the series for the next several years. In 1968, Romita would also draw the character's extra-length stories in the comics magazine The Spectacular Spider-Man, a proto-graphic novel designed to appeal to older readers but which lasted only two issues.[20] Nonetheless, it represented the first Spider-Man spin-off publication, aside from the original series' summer annuals that began in 1964. An early 1970s Spider-Man story led to the revision of the Comics Code. Previously, the Code forbade the depiction of the use of illegal drugs, even negatively. However, in 1970, the Nixon administration's Department of Health, Education, and Welfare asked Stan Lee to publish an anti-drug message in one of Marvel's top-selling titles.[1]:239 Lee chose the top-selling The Amazing Spider-Man; issues #96–98 (May–July 1971) feature a story arc depicting the negative effects of drug use. In the story, Peter Parker's friend Harry Osborn becomes addicted to pills. When Spider-Man fights the Green Goblin (Norman Osborn, Harry's father), Spider-Man defeats the Green Goblin, by revealing Harry's drug addiction. While the story had a clear anti-drug message, the Comics Code Authority refused to issue its seal of approval. Marvel nevertheless published the three issues without the Comics Code Authority's approval or seal. The issues sold so well that the industry's self-censorship was undercut and the Code was subsequently revised.[1]:239 In 1972, a second monthly ongoing series starring Spider-Man began: Marvel Team-Up, in which Spider-Man was paired with other superheroes and villains. In 1976, his second solo series, The Spectacular Spider-Man began running parallel to the main series. A third series featuring Spider-Man, Web of Spider-Man, launched in 1985, replacing Marvel Team-Up. The launch of a fourth monthly title in 1990, the "adjectiveless" Spider-Man (with the storyline "Torment"), written and drawn by popular artist Todd McFarlane, debuted with several different covers, all with the same interior content. The various versions combined sold over 3 million copies, an industry record at the time. There have generally been at least two ongoing Spider-Man series at any time. Several limited series, one-shots, and loosely related comics have also been published, and Spider-Man makes frequent cameos and guest appearances in other comic series.[1]:279 The original Amazing Spider-Man ran through issue #441 (Nov. 1998). Writer-artist John Byrne then revamped the origin of Spider-Man in the 13-issue limited series Spider-Man: Chapter One (Dec. 1998 - Oct. 1999, with an issue #0 midway through and some months containing two issues), similar to Byrne's adding details and some revisions to Superman's origin in DC Comics' The Man of Steel.[21] Running concurrently, The Amazing Spider-Man was restarted with vol. 2, #1 (Jan. 1999). With what would have been vol. 2, #59, Marvel reintroduced the original numbering, starting with #500 (Dec. 2003). By the end of 2007, Spider-Man regularly appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man, New Avengers, Spider-Man Family, and various limited series in mainstream Marvel Comics continuity, as well as in the alternate-universe series The Amazing Spider-Girl, the Ultimate Universe title Ultimate Spider-Man, the alternate-universe tween series Spider-Man Loves Mary Jane, the alternate-universe children's series Marvel Adventures Spider-Man, and Marvel Adventures: The Avengers. When primary series The Amazing Spider-Man reached issue #545 (Dec. 2007), Marvel dropped its spin-off ongoing series and instead began publishing The Amazing Spider-Man three times monthly, beginning with #546-549 (each Jan. 2008). The three times monthly scheduling of The Amazing Spider-Man lasted until November 2010 when the comic book was increased from 22 pages to 30 pages each issue and published only twice a month, beginning with #648-649 (each Nov. 2010). The following year (Nov. 2011) Marvel started publishing Avenging Spider-Man as the first spin-off ongoing series in addition to the still twice monthly The Amazing Spider-Man since the previous ones were cancelled at the end of 2007. Comic book character    The spider bite that gave Peter Parker his powers. Amazing Fantasy #15, art by Steve Ditko. In Forest Hills, Queens, New York City,[22] high school student Peter Parker is a science- whiz orphan living with his Uncle Ben and Aunt May. As depicted in Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962), he is bitten by a radioactive spider (erroneously classified as an insect in the panel) at a science exhibit and "acquires the agility and proportionate strength of an arachnid."[23] Along with super strength, he gains the ability to adhere to walls and ceilings. Through his native knack for science, he develops a gadget that lets him fire adhesive webbing of his own design through small, wrist-mounted barrels. Initially seeking to capitalize on his new abilities, he dons a costume and, as "Spider-Man", becomes a novelty television star. However, "He blithely ignores the chance to stop a fleeing thief, [and] his indifference ironically catches up with him when the same criminal later robs and kills his Uncle Ben."[24] Spider-Man tracks and subdues the killer and learns, in the story's next-to-last caption, "With great power there must also come—great responsibility!"[24] Despite his superpowers, Parker struggles to help his widowed aunt pay rent, is taunted by his peers—particularly football star Flash Thompson—and, as Spider-Man, engenders the editorial wrath of newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson.[25][26] As he battles his enemies for the first time,[27] Parker finds juggling his personal life and costumed adventures difficult. In time, Peter graduates from high school,[28] and enrolls at Empire State University (a fictional institution evoking the real-life Columbia University and New York University).,[29] where he meets roommate and best friend Harry Osborn and first girlfriend Gwen Stacy,[30] and Aunt May introduces him to Mary Jane Watson.[27][31][32] As Peter deals with Harry's drug problems, and Harry's father is revealed to be Spider-Man's nemesis the Green Goblin, Peter even attempts to give up his costumed identity for a while.[33][34] Gwen's Stacy's father, New York City Police detective captain George Stacy is accidentally killed during a battle between Spider-Man and Doctor Octopus (#90, Nov. 1970).[35] In the course of his adventures Spider-Man has made a wide variety of friends and contacts within the superhero community, who often come to his aid when he faces problems that he cannot solve on his own. In issue #121 (June 1973),[27] the Green Goblin throws Gwen Stacy from a tower of either the Brooklyn Bridge (as depicted in the art) or the George Washington Bridge (as given in the text).[36][37] She dies during Spider-Man's rescue attempt; a note on the letters page of issue #125 states: "It saddens us to say that the whiplash effect she underwent when Spidey's webbing stopped her so suddenly was, in fact, what killed her."[38] The following issue, the Goblin appears to accidentally kill himself in the ensuing battle with Spider-Man.[39] Working through his grief, Parker eventually develops tentative feelings toward Watson, and the two "become confidants rather than lovers."[40] Parker graduates from college in issue #185,[27] and becomes involved with the shy Debra Whitman and the extroverted, flirtatious costumed thief Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat,[41] whom he meets in issue #194 (July 1979).[27] From 1984 to 1988, Spider-Man wore a different costume than his original. Black with a white spider design, this new costume originated in the Secret Wars limited series, on an alien planet where Spider-Man participates in a battle between Earth's major superheroes and villains.[42] Not unexpectedly, the change to a longstanding character's iconic design met with controversy, "with many hardcore comics fans decrying it as tantamount to sacrilege. Spider-Man's traditional red and blue costume was iconic, they argued, on par with those of his D.C. rivals Superman and Batman."[43] The creators then revealed the costume was an alien symbiote which Spider-Man is able to reject after a difficult struggle,[44] though the symbiote returns several times as Venom for revenge.[27] Parker proposes to Watson in The Amazing Spider-Man #290 (July 1987), and she accepts two issues later, with the wedding taking place in The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #21 (1987)—promoted with a real-life mock wedding using actors at Shea Stadium, with Stan Lee officiating, on June 5, 1987.[45][46] However, David Michelinie, who scripted based on a plot by editor-in-chief Jim Shooter, said in 2007, "I didn't think they actually should [have gotten] married. ... I had actually planned another version, one that wasn't used."[45] In a controversial storyline, Peter becomes convinced that Ben Reilly, the Scarlet Spider (a clone of Peter created by his college professor Miles Warren) is the real Peter Parker, and that he, Peter, is the clone. Peter gives up the Spider-Man identity to Reilly for a time, until Reilly is killed by the returning Green Goblin and revealed to be the clone after all.[47] In stories published in 2005 and 2006 (such as "The Other"), he develops additional spider-like abilities including biological web-shooters, toxic stingers that extend from his forearms, the ability to stick individuals to his back, enhanced Spider-sense and night vision, and increased strength and speed. Peter later becomes a member of the New Avengers, and reveals his civilian identity to the world,[48] furthering his already numerous problems. His marriage to Mary Jane and public unmasking are later erased in the controversial[49] storyline "One More Day", in a Faustian bargain with the demon Mephisto, resulting in several adjustments to the timeline, such as the resurrection of Harry Osborn, the erasure of Parker's marriage, and the return of his traditional tools and powers.[50] That storyline came at the behest of editor-in-chief Joe Quesada, who said, "Peter being single is an intrinsic part of the very foundation of the world of Spider-Man".[49] It caused unusual public friction between Quesada and writer J. Michael Straczynski, who "told Joe that I was going to take my name off the last two issues of the [story] arc" but was talked out of doing so.[51] At issue with Straczynski's climax to the arc, Quesada said, was ...that we didn't receive the story and methodology to the resolution that we were all expecting. What made that very problematic is that we had four writers and artists well underway on [the sequel arc] "Brand New Day" that were expecting and needed "One More Day" to end in the way that we had all agreed it would. ... The fact that we had to ask for the story to move back to its original intent understandably made Joe upset and caused some major delays and page increases in the series. Also, the science that Joe was going to apply to the retcon of the marriage would have made over 30 years of Spider-Man books worthless, because they never would have had happened. ...[I]t would have reset way too many things outside of the Spider-Man titles. We just couldn't go there....[51] Personality "People often say glibly that Marvel succeeded by blending super hero adventure stories with soap opera. What Lee and Ditko actually did in The Amazing Spider-Man was to make the series an ongoing novelistic chronicle of the lead character's life. Most super heroes had problems no more complex or relevant to their readers' lives than thwarting this month's bad guys.... Parker had far more serious concern in his life: coming to terms with the death of a loved one, falling in love for the first time, struggling to make a living, and undergoing crises of conscience." Comics historian Peter Sanderson[52] As one contemporaneous journalist observed, "Spider-Man has a terrible identity problem, a marked inferiority complex, and a fear of women. He is anti-social, [sic] castration-ridden, racked with Oedipal guilt, and accident-prone ... [a] functioning neurotic".[22] Agonizing over his choices, always attempting to do right, he is nonetheless viewed with suspicion by the authorities, who seem unsure as to whether he is a helpful vigilante or a clever criminal.[53] Notes cultural historian Bradford W. Wright, Spider-Man's plight was to be misunderstood and persecuted by the very public that he swore to protect. In the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man, J. Jonah Jameson, publisher of the Daily Bugle, launches an editorial campaign against the "Spider-Man menace." The resulting negative publicity exacerbates popular suspicions about the mysterious Spider-Man and makes it impossible for him to earn any more money by performing. Eventually, the bad press leads the authorities to brand him an outlaw. Ironically, Peter finally lands a job as a photographer for Jameson's Daily Bugle.[1]:212 The mid-1960s stories reflected the political tensions of the time, as early 1960s Marvel stories had often dealt with the Cold War and Communism.[1]:220-223 As Wright observes, From his high-school beginnings to his entry into college life, Spider-Man remained the superhero most relevant to the world of young people. Fittingly, then, his comic book also contained some of the earliest references to the politics of young people. In 1968, in the wake of actual militant student demonstrations at Columbia University, Peter Parker finds himself in the midst of similar unrest at his Empire State University. ... Peter has to reconcile his natural sympathy for the students with his assumed obligation to combat lawlessness as Spider-Man. As a law-upholding liberal, he finds himself caught between militant leftism and angry conservatives.[1]:234-235 Other versions  Main article: Alternative versions of Spider-Man Due to Spider-Man's popularity in the mainstream Marvel Universe, publishers have been able to introduce different variations of Spider-Man outside of mainstream comics as well as reimagined stories in many other multiversed spinoffs such as Ultimate Spider-Man, Spider-Man 2099, and Spider-Man: India. Marvel has also made its own parodies of Spider-Man in comics such as Not Brand Echh, which was published in the late 1960s and featured such characters as Peter Pooper alias Spidey-Man,[54] and Peter Porker, the Spectacular Spider-Ham, who appeared in the 1980s. The fictional character has also inspired a number of deratives such as a manga version of Spider-Man drawn by Japanese artist Ryoichi Ikegami as well as Hideshi Hino's The Bug Boy, which has been cited as inspired by Spider-Man.[55] Also the French comic Télé-Junior published strips based on popular TV series. In the late 1970s, the publisher also produced original Spider-Man adventures. Artists included Gérald Forton, who later moved to America and worked for Marvel.[56] Powers and equipment  Main article: Spider-Man's powers and equipment A bite from a radioactive spider on a school field trip causes a variety of changes in the body of Peter Parker and gives him superpowers.[57] In the original Lee-Ditko stories, Spider-Man has the ability to cling to walls, superhuman strength, a sixth sense ("spider-sense") that alerts him to danger, perfect balance and equilibrium, as well as superhuman speed and agility. Some of his comic series have him shooting webs from his wrists.[57] Brilliant, Parker excels in applied science, chemistry, and physics. The character was originally conceived by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko as intellectually gifted, but not a genius. However, later writers have depicted the character as a genius.[58] With his talents, he sews his own costume to conceal his identity, and constructs many devices that complement his powers, most notably mechanical web-shooters.[57] This mechanism ejects an advanced adhesive, releasing web-fluid in a variety of configurations, including a single rope-like strand to swing from, a net to bind enemies, a single strand for yanking opponents into objects, strands for whipping foreign objects at enemies, and a simple glob to foul machinery or blind an opponent. He can also weave the web material into simple forms like a shield, a spherical protection or hemispherical barrier, a club, or a hang-glider wing. Other equipment include spider-tracers (spider-shaped adhesive homing beacons keyed to his own spider-sense), a light beacon which can either be used as a flashlight or project a "Spider-Signal" design, and a specially modified camera that can take pictures automatically. Supporting characters  Main article: List of Spider-Man supporting characters Spider-Man has had a large range of supporting characters introduced in the comics that are essential in the issues and storylines that star him. After his parents died, Peter Parker was raised by his loving aunt, May Parker, and his uncle and father figure, Ben Parker. After Uncle Ben is murdered by a burglar, Aunt May is virtually Peter's only family, and she and Peter are very close.[23] J. Jonah Jameson is depicted as the publisher of the Daily Bugle and is Peter Parker's boss and as a harsh critic of Spider-Man, always saying negative things about the superhero in the newspaper. Although his publishing editor and confidant Robbie Robertson is alway depicted as a supporter of both Peter Parker and Spider-Man.[25] Eugene "Flash" Thompson is commonly depicted as Parker's high school tormentor and bully but in some comic issues as a friend as well.[25] Meanwhile Harry Osborn, son of Norman Osborn, is most commonly recognized as Peter's best friend but has also been depicted sometimes as his rival in the comics.[27] Peter Parker's romantic interests range between his first crush, the fellow high-school student Liz Allan,[25] to having his first date with Jameson's secretary, Betty Brant,[59] the secretary to Daily Bugle newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson. After his breakup with Betty Brant, Parker eventually falls in love with his college girlfriend Gwen Stacy,[27][30] daughter of New York City Police Department detective captain George Stacy, both of whom are later killed by supervillain enemies of Spider-Man.[35][35] Mary Jane Watson eventually became Peter's best friend and then his wife.[45] Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat, is a reformed cat burglar who had been Spider-Man's girlfriend and partner at one point.[41] Enemies Main article: List of Spider-Man enemies Writers and artists over many years have managed to establish a notable fictional rogues gallery of classic villains to face Spider-Man. As with Spider-Man, the majority of these villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology, trends include a few animal-themed costumes or powers and a few of them having green costume as well.[note 6] Early on Spider-Man faced supervillains and foes such as the Chameleon (introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man #1, March 1963), the Vulture (#2, May 1963), Doctor Octopus (#3, July 1963), the Sandman (#4, Sept. 1963), the Lizard (#6, Nov. 1963), Electro (#9, Feb. 1964), Mysterio (#13, June 1964), the Green Goblin (#14, July 1964), Kraven the Hunter (#15, Aug. 1964),the Scorpion (#20, Jan. 1965), the Rhino (#41, Oct. 1966)—the first original Lee/Romita Spider-Man villain[60]—the Shocker (#46, March 1967), and the physically powerful and well-connected criminal capo Wilson Fisk, also known as the Kingpin.[27] The Clone Saga reveals a supporting character called Miles Warren turn into the villain called the Jackal, the antagonist of the storyline.[30] After Norman Osborn was killed off, a new more mysterious villain called the Hobgoblin was developed to replace him in #238 until Norman was revised later on.[61] After Spider-Man turned away his dark costume, there revealed a new popular antagonist with Eddie Brock as Venom in issue #298 (May 1988),[27] although he was an ally to Spider-Man with a much darker version of him called Carnage in issue #344.[62] At times these enemies of Spider-Man have formed groups such as the Sinister Six to oppose Spider-Man.[63] The Green Goblin, Doctor Octopus and Venom are generally described or written as one of his greatest and most ruthless enemies.[64][65][66] Cultural influence    Spider-Man sign appearing in front of The Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man in Universal Studios Florida's Islands of Adventure. Comic book writer-editor and historian Paul Kupperberg, in The Creation of Spider-Man, calls the character's superpowers "nothing too original"; what was original was that outside his secret identity, he was a "nerdy high school student".[67]:5 Going against typical superhero fare, Spider-Man included "heavy doses of soap-opera and elements of melodrama." Kupperberg feels that Lee and Ditko had created something new in the world of comics: "the flawed superhero with everyday problems." This idea spawned a "comics revolution."[67]:6 The insecurity and anxieties in Marvel's early 1960s comic books such as The Amazing Spider-Man, The Incredible Hulk, and X-Men ushered in a new type of superhero, very different from the certain and all-powerful superheroes before them, and changed the public's perception of them.[68] Spider-Man has become one of the most recognizable fictional characters in the world, and has been used to sell toys, games, cereal, candy, soap, and many other products.[69] Spider-Man has become Marvel's flagship character, and has often been used as the company mascot. When Marvel became the first comic book company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1991, the Wall Street Journal announced "Spider-Man is coming to Wall Street"; the event was in turn promoted with an actor in a Spider-Man costume accompanying Stan Lee to the Stock Exchange.[1]:254 Since 1962, hundreds of millions of comics featuring the character have been sold around the world.[70] Spider-Man joined the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade from 1987 to 1998 as one of the balloon floats,[71] designed by John Romita Sr.,[72] one of the character's signature artists. A new, different Spider-Man balloon float is scheduled to appear from at least 2009 to 2011.[71] In 1981, skyscraper-safety activist Dan Goodwin, wearing a Spider-Man suit, scaled the Sears Tower in Chicago, Illinois, the Renaissance Tower in Dallas, Texas, and the John Hancock Center in Chicago, Illinois.[73] When Marvel wanted to issue a story dealing with the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the company chose the December 2001 issue of The Amazing Spider-Man.[74] In 2006, Spider-Man garnered major media coverage with the revelation of the character's secret identity,[75] an event detailed in a full page story in the New York Post before the issue containing the story was even released.[76] In 2008, Marvel announced plans to release a series of educational comics the following year in partnership with the United Nations, depicting Spider-Man alongside UN Peacekeeping Forces to highlight UN peacekeeping missions.[77] A BusinessWeek article listed Spider-Man as one of the top ten most intelligent fictional characters in American comics.[78] In other media    Tobey Maguire (top) and Andrew Garfield (bottom) have both portrayed Spider-Man in film. Main article: Spider-Man in other media Spider-Man has appeared in comics, cartoons, movies, coloring books, novels, records, and children's books.[69] On television, he appeared as the main character in the animated series Spider-Man, which aired from 1967–1970 on ABC,[79] the live-action series The Amazing Spider-Man (1978–1979) starring Nicholas Hammond, the syndicated cartoon Spider-Man (1981–1982), Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends (1981–1983), Spider-Man: The Animated Series (1994–1998), Spider-Man Unlimited (1999–2000), Spider-Man: The New Animated Series (2003), and The Spectacular Spider-Man (2008–2009). A new animated series titled Ultimate Spider-Man, based on the alternate-universe comic-book series of the same name, is scheduled to air on Disney XD in 2012.[80] A tokusatsu show featuring Spider-Man was produced by Toei and aired in Japan. It is commonly referred to by its Japanese pronunciation "Supaidā-Man".[81] Spider-Man also appeared in other print forms besides the comics, including novels, children's books, and the daily newspaper comic strip The Amazing Spider-Man, which debuted in January 1977, with the earliest installments written by Stan Lee and drawn by John Romita, Sr.[82] Spider-Man has been adapted to other media including games, toys, collectibles, and miscellaneous memorabilia, and has appeared as the main character in numerous computer and video games on over 15 gaming platforms. Spider-Man was also featured in a trilogy of live-action films directed by Sam Raimi and starring Tobey Maguire as the title superhero. The first Spider-Man film was released on May 3, 2002; its first sequel, Spider-Man 2, was released on June 30, 2004 and the next sequel, Spider-Man 3, was released on May 4, 2007. A third sequel was originally scheduled to be released in 2011, however Sony later decided the franchise would be rebooted and a new director and cast would be introduced. The reboot, titled The Amazing Spider-Man, is scheduled to be released on July 3, 2012, directed by Marc Webb and starring Andrew Garfield as the new Spider-Man.[83][84][85][86][87] A Broadway musical, Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark, began previews on November 14, 2010 at the Foxwoods Theatre on Broadway, with the official opening night on June 14, 2011.[88][89] The music and lyrics were written by Bono and The Edge of the rock group U2, with a book by Julie Taymor, Glen Berger, Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa.[90] Turn Off the Dark is currently the most expensive musical in Broadway history, costing an estimated $70 million.[91] In addition, the show's unusually high running costs are reported to be about $1.2 million per week.[92] Awards and honors  From the character's inception, Spider-Man stories have won numerous awards, including: 1962 Alley Award: Best Short Story—"Origin of Spider-Man" by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko, Amazing Fantasy #15 1963 Alley Award: Best Comic: Adventure Hero title—The Amazing Spider-Man 1963 Alley Award: Top Hero—Spider-Man 1964 Alley Award: Best Adventure Hero Comic Book—The Amazing Spider-Man 1964 Alley Award: Best Giant Comic - The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #1 1964 Alley Award: Best Hero—Spider-Man 1965 Alley Award: Best Adventure Hero Comic Book—The Amazing Spider-Man 1965 Alley Award: Best Hero—Spider-Man 1966 Alley Award: Best Comic Magazine: Adventure Book with the Main Character in the Title—The Amazing Spider-Man 1966 Alley Award: Best Full-Length Story - "How Green was My Goblin", by Stan Lee & John Romita, Sr., The Amazing Spider-Man #39 1967 Alley Award: Best Comic Magazine: Adventure Book with the Main Character in the Title—The Amazing Spider-Man 1967 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Costumed or Powered Hero—Spider-Man 1967 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Male Normal Supporting Character—J. Jonah Jameson, The Amazing Spider-Man 1967 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Female Normal Supporting Character—Mary Jane Watson, The Amazing Spider-Man 1968 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Adventure Hero Strip—The Amazing Spider-Man 1968 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Supporting Character - J. Jonah Jameson, The Amazing Spider-Man 1969 Alley Award Popularity Poll: Best Adventure Hero Strip—The Amazing Spider-Man 1997 Eisner Award: Best Artist/Penciller/Inker or Penciller/Inker Team—1997 Al Williamson, Best Inker: Untold Tales of Spider-Man #17-18 2002 Eisner Award: Best Serialized Story—The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 2, #30–35: "Coming Home", by J. Michael Straczynski, John Romita, Jr., and Scott Hanna No date: Empire magazine's fifth-greatest comic book character.[93] No date: Spider-Man was the #1 superhero on Bravo's Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens, and Villains show.[94] No date: Fandomania.com rated him as #7 on their 100 Greatest Fictional Characters list.[95] See also  	United States portal 	Comics portal 	Speculative fiction portal 	Superhero fiction portal List of Spider-Man titles Selected story arcs "Maximum Carnage" "Identity Crisis" "The Gathering of Five" and "The Final Chapter" "One More Day" "Brand New Day" "New Ways to Die" "American Son" "The Gauntlet and Grim Hunt" "One Moment in Time"  Notes  ^ Lee, Stan; Mair, George (2002). Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee. Fireside. ISBN 0-684-87305-2. "He goes further in his biography, claiming that even while pitching the concept to publisher Martin Goodman, "I can't remember if that was literally true or not, but I thought it would lend a big color to my pitch."" ^ Detroit Free Press interview with Stan Lee, quoted in The Steve Ditko Reader by Greg Theakston (Pure Imagination, Brooklyn, NY; ISBN 1-56685-011-8), p. 12 (unnumbered). "He gave me 1,000 reasons why Spider-Man would never work. Nobody likes spiders; it sounds too much like Superman; and how could a teenager be a superhero? Then I told him I wanted the character to be a very human guy, someone who makes mistakes, who worries, who gets acne, has trouble with his girlfriend, things like that. [Goodman replied,] 'He's a hero! He's not an average man!' I said, 'No, we make him an average man who happens to have super powers, that's what will make him good.' He told me I was crazy". ^ Ditko, Steve (2000). Roy Thomas. ed. Alter Ego: The Comic Book Artist Collection. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 1893905063. "'Stan said a new Marvel hero would be introduced in #15 [of what became titled Amazing Fantasy]. He would be called Spider-Man. Jack would do the penciling and I was to ink the character.' At this point still, 'Stan said Spider-Man would be a teenager with a magic ring which could transform him into an adult hero—Spider-Man. I said it sounded like the Fly, which Joe Simon had done for Archie Comics. Stan called Jack about it but I don't know what was discussed. I never talked to Jack about Spider-Man... Later, at some point, I was given the job of drawing Spider-Man'". ^ Jack Kirby in "Shop Talk: Jack Kirby", Will Eisner's Spirit Magazine #39 (February 1982): "Spider-Man was discussed between Joe Simon and myself. It was the last thing Joe and I had discussed. We had a strip called 'The Silver Spider.' The Silver Spider was going into a magazine called Black Magic. Black Magic folded with Crestwood (Simon & Kirby's 1950s comics company) and we were left with the script. I believe I said this could become a thing called Spider-Man, see, a superhero character. I had a lot of faith in the superhero character that they could be brought back... and I said Spider-Man would be a fine character to start with. But Joe had already moved on. So the idea was already there when I talked to Stan". ^ Simon, Joe, with Jim Simon. The Comic Book Makers (Crestwood/II, 1990) ISBN 1-887591-35-4. "There were a few holes in Jack's never-dependable memory. For instance, there was no Black Magic involved at all. ... Jack brought in the Spider-Man logo that I had loaned to him before we changed the name to The Silver Spider. Kirby laid out the story to Lee about the kid who finds a ring in a spiderweb, gets his powers from the ring, and goes forth to fight crime armed with The Silver Spider's old web-spinning pistol. Stan Lee said, 'Perfect, just what I want.' After obtaining permission from publisher Martin Goodman, Lee told Kirby to pencil-up an origin story. Kirby... using parts of an old rejected superhero named Night Fighter... revamped the old Silver Spider script, including revisions suggested by Lee. But when Kirby showed Lee the sample pages, it was Lee's turn to gripe. He had been expecting a skinny young kid who is transformed into a skinny young kid with spider powers. Kirby had him turn into... Captain America with cobwebs. He turned Spider-Man over to Steve Ditko, who... ignored Kirby's pages, tossed the character's magic ring, web-pistol and goggles... and completely redesigned Spider-Man's costume and equipment. In this life, he became high-school student Peter Parker, who gets his spider powers after being bitten by a radioactive spider. ... Lastly, the Spider-Man logo was redone and a dashing hyphen added". ^ Mondello, Salvatore (Mar 2004). "Spider-Man: Superhero in the Liberal Tradition". The Journal of Popular Culture X (1): 232–238. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1976.1001_232.x. "a teenage superhero and middle-aged supervillains—an impressive rogues' gallery which includes such memorable knaves and grotesques as the Vulture," References  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wright, Bradford W. (2001). Comic Book Nation. Johns Hopkins Press : Baltimore. ISBN 0801874505. ^ "Why Spider-Man is popular.". Retrieved 18 November 2010. ^ "It's Official! Andrew Garfield to Play Spider-Man!". Comingsoon.net. 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2010-10-09. ^ "Complete Cast Announced for Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark". Broadway.com. 2010-08-16. Retrieved 2010-10-09. ^ "IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes". Retrieved 2011-05-09. ^ a b Lee, Stan; Mair, George (2002). Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee. Fireside. ISBN 0-684-87305-2. ^ a b c DeFalco, Tom; Lee, Stan (2001). O'Neill, Cynthia. ed. Spider-Man: The Ultimate Guide. New York: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 078947946X. ^ a b c Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3821-9. ^ a b Theakston, Greg (2002). The Steve Ditko Reader. Brooklyn, NY: Pure Imagination. ISBN 1-56685-011-8. ^ a b Ditko, Steve (2000). Roy Thomas. ed. Alter Ego: The Comic Book Artist Collection. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 1893905063. ^ Amazing Fantasy at the Grand Comics Database ^ "Deposition of Stan Lee". Los Angeles, California: United States District Court, Southern District of New York: "Marvel Worldwide, Inc., et al., vs. Lisa R. Kirby, et al.". December 8, 2010. p. 37. ^ Ditko interview (Summer 1965). "Steve Ditko - A Portrait of the Master". Comic Fan #2 (Larry Herndon) via Ditko.Comics.org (Blake Bell, ed.). Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-03. Additional WebCitation archive, February 28, 2012. ^ a b Evanier, Mark; Gaiman, Neil (2008). Kirby: King of Comics. Abrams. ISBN 081099447X. ^ Bell, Blake. Strange and Stranger: The World of Steve Ditko (2008). Fantagraphic Books.p.54-57. ^ Skelly, Tim. "Interview II: 'I created an army of characters, and now my connection to them is lost.'" (Initially broadcast over WNUR-FM on "The Great Electric Bird," May 14, 1971. Transcribed and published in The Nostalgia Journal #27.) Reprinted in The Comics Journal Library Volume One: Jack Kirby, George, Milo ed. May, 2002, Fantagraphics Books. p. 16 ^ Ross, Jonathon. In Search of Steve Ditko, BBC 4, September 16, 2007. ^ Nickerson, Al. "Who Really Created Spider-Man?" P.I.C. News, 5 February 2009. Accessed 2009-02-17. Archived 2009-02-17. ^ "Library of Congress Receives Original Drawings for the First Spider-Man Story, 'Amazing Fantasy' #15", Library of Congress press release, April 30, 2008. WebCitation archive. Additionally: Raymond, Matt. "Library of Congress Acquires Spider-Man's 'Birth Certificate'", Library of Congress Blog, April 30, 2008. WebCitation archive. ^ Saffel, Steve. Spider-Man the Icon: The Life and Times of a Pop Culture Phenomenon (Titan Books, 2007) ISBN 978-1-84576-324-4, "A Not-So-Spectacular Experiment", p. 31 ^ Michael Thomas. "John Byrne: The Hidden Story". Comic book resources. Retrieved May 27, 2011. ^ a b Kempton, Sally, "Spiderman's [sic] Dilemma: Super-Anti-Hero in Forest Hills", The Village Voice, April 1, 1965 ^ a b Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). Amazing Fantasy 15 (August 1962), New York, NY: Marvel Comics ^ a b Daniels, Les. Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics (Harry N. Abrams, New York, 1991) ISBN 0-8109-3821-9, p. 95 ^ a b c d Saffel, Steve. Spider-Man the Icon: The Life and Times of a Pop Culture Phenomenon (Titan Books, 2007) ISBN 978-1-84576-324-4, p. 21 ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). "Spider-Man"; "Spider-Man vs. The Chameleon"; "Duel to the Death with the Vulture; "The Uncanny Threat of the Terrible Tinkerer!" The Amazing Spider-Man 1-2 (March, May 1963), New York, NY: Marvel Comics ^ a b c d e f g h i j Amazing Spider-Man, The (Marvel, 1963 Series) at the Grand Comics Database ^ Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). "The Menace of the Molten Man!" The Amazing Spider-Man 28 (September 1965), New York, NY: Marvel Comics ^ Saffel, p. 51 ^ a b c Sanderson, Peter (2007). The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City. New York City: Pocket Books. pp. 30–33. ISBN 1-14653-141-6. ^ Lee, Stan (w), Romita, John (a). "The Birth of a Super-Hero!" The Amazing Spider-Man 42 (November 1966), New York, NY: Marvel Comics ^ Saffel, p. 27 ^ Lee, Stan (w), Romita, John (p), Mickey Demeo (i). "Spider-Man No More!" The Amazing Spider-Man 50 (July 1967), New York, NY: Marvel Comics ^ Lee, Stan (w), Kane, Gil (p), Giacoia, Frank (i). "The Spider or the Man?" The Amazing Spider-Man 100 (September 1971), New York, NY: Marvel Comics ^ a b c Saffel, p. 60 ^ Saffel, p. 65, states, "In the battle that followed atop the Brooklyn Bridge (or was it the George Washington Bridge?)...." On page 66, Saffel reprints the panel of The Amazing Spider-Man #121, page 18, in which Spider-Man exclaims, "The George Washington Bridge! It figures Osborn would pick something named after his favorite president. He's got the same sort of hangup for dollar bills!" Saffel states, "The span portrayed...is the GW's more famous cousin, the Brooklyn Bridge. ... To address the contradiction in future reprints of the tale, though, Spider-Man's dialogue was altered so that he's referring to the Brooklyn Bridge. But the original snafu remains as one of the more visible errors in the history of comics." ^ Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 84, notes, "[W]hile the script described the site of Gwen's demise as the George Washington Bridge, the art depicted the Brooklyn Bridge, and there is still no agreement as to where it actually took place." ^ Saffel, p. 65 ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Kane, Gil (p), Romita, John (i). "The Night Gwen Stacy Died" The Amazing Spider-Man 121 (June 1973), New York, NY: Marvel Comics ^ Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 85 ^ a b Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 83 ^ Shooter, Jim (w), Zeck, Michael (p), Beatty, John, Abel, Jack, and Esposito, Mike (i). "Invasion" Marvel Super-Heroes Secret Wars 8 (December 1984), New York, NY: Marvel Comics ^ Leupp, Thomas. "Behind the Mask: The Story of Spider-Man's Black Costume", ReelzChannel.com, 2007, n.d. WebCitation archive. ^ Simonson, Louise (w), LaRocque, Greg (p), Mooney, Jim and Colletta, Vince (i). "'Til Death Do Us Part!" Web of Spider-Man 1 (April 1985), New York, NY: Marvel Comics ^ a b c Saffel, p. 124 ^ Shooter, Jim and Michelinie, David (w), Ryan, Paul (p), Colletta, Vince (i). "The Wedding" The Amazing Spider-Man Annual 21 (1987), New York, NY: Marvel Comics ^ ""Life of Reilly", 35-part series, GreyHaven Magazine, 2003, n.d.". NewComicsReviews.com. Archived from the original on 1996-01-01. ^ Millar, Mark (w), McNiven, Steve (p), Vines, Dexter (i). "Civil War" Civil War 2 (August 2006), New York, NY: Marvel Comics ^ a b Weiland, Jonah. "The 'One More Day' Interviews with Joe Quesada, Pt. 1 of 5", Newsarama, December 28, 2007. WebCitation archive. ^ Straczynski, J. Michael (w), Quesada, Joe (p), Miki, Danny (i). "One More Day Part 4" The Amazing Spider-Man 545 (Dec. 2007), Marvel Comics ^ a b Weiland, Jonah. "The 'One More Day' Interviews with Joe Quesada, Pt. 2 of 5", Newsarama, December 31, 2007. WebCitation archive. ^ Sanderson, Peter. Marvel Universe: The Complete Encyclopedia of Marvel's Greatest Characters (Harry N. Abrams, New York, 1998) ISBN 0-8109-8171-8, p. 75 ^ Daniels, p. 96 ^ "examples of "Not Brand Echh" comics". Dialbforblog.com. Retrieved 2010-04-10. ^ McCarthy, Helen, 500 Manga Heroes and Villains (Barron's Educational Series, 2006), ISBN 978-0-7641-3201-8,[page needed] ^ Lambiek comic shop and studio in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. "Lambiek Comiclopedia: Gérald Forton". Lambiek.net. Retrieved 2010-04-10. ^ a b c Gresh, Lois H., and Robert Weinberg. "The Science of Superheroes" (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002) ISBN 0-471-02460-0 (preview) ^ Kiefer, Kit; Couper-Smartt, Jonathan (2003). Marvel Encyclopedia Volume 4: Spider-Man. New York: Marvel Comics. ISBN 0-785-11304-5. ^ Lee, Stan, Origins of Marvel Comics (Simon and Schuster/Fireside Books, 1974) p. 137 ^ Saunders, et al, Marvel Chronicle, p. 119 ^ DeFalco, Tom (2004). Comics Creators on Spider-Man. Titan Books. ISBN 1840234229. ^ "2004" Maximum Carnage (May - August 1963), Marvel Comics, ISBN 0-7851-0987-0 ^ "Broadway's 'Spider-Man spin's magic'.". Kansas City Star. Retrieved May 26, 2011. ^ Goldstein, Hilary (2006-02-01). "Spider-Man villain poll". IGN. Retrieved 2006-10-01. ^ "The 20 Greatest Spider-Man Villains". Blogzarro.com. Retrieved 2010-03-20. ^ "Fans : Top Ten : Top Ten Greatest Spider-Man Villains". SpiderFan.org. 2003-09-01. Retrieved 2010-03-20. ^ a b Kupperberg, Paul (2007). The Creation of Spider-Man. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 1404207635. ^ Fleming, James R. (2006). "Review of Superman on the Couch: What Superheroes Really Tell Us about Ourselves and Our Society. By Danny Fingeroth". ImageText (University of Florida). ISSN 1549-6732. Retrieved Fleming. ^ a b Knowles, Christopher (2007). Our Gods Wear Spandex. illustrated by Joseph Michael Linsner. Weiser. p. 139. ^ "Spider-Man Weaving a spell". Screen India. 2002. Retrieved 2009-02-13. ^ a b "Spider-Man Returning to Macy's Thanksgiving Day Paradede"[dead link], Associated Press via WCBS (AM), 17 August 2009 ^ Spurlock, J. David, and John Romita. John Romita Sketchbook. (Vanguard Productions: Lebanon, N.J. 2002) ISBN 1-887591-27-3, p. 45: Romita: "I designed the Spider-Man balloon float. When we went to Macy's to talk about it, Manny Bass was there. He's the genius who creates all these balloon floats. I gave him the sketches and he turned them into reality". ^ "Skyscraper Defense". Retrieved 2011-07-04. ^ Yarbrough, Beau (2001-09-24). "Marvel to Take on World Trade Center Attack in "Amazing Spider-Man"". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2008-04-28. ^ Staff (2006-06-15). "Spider-Man Removes Mask at Last". BBC. Retrieved 2006-09-29. ^ Brady, Matt (2006-06-14). "New York Post Spoils Civil War #2". Newsarama. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-02. ^ Lane, Thomas (2008-01-04). "Can Spider-Man help UN beat evil?". BBC. Retrieved 2008-04-29. ^ Pisani, Joseph (June 1, 2006). "The Smartest Superheroes". Business Week Online. Retrieved 2007-11-25. ^ "Spider-Man (1967)". UGO Networks. Archived from the original on 2008-04-24. Retrieved 2009-02-13. ^ "Ultimate Spider-Man". Retrieved 18 November 2010. ^ "Japanese Spider-Man". Retrieved 18 November 2010. ^ "John Romita Interview". www.keefestudios.com. Retrieved 2009-02-08. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: 'Spider-Man 4' Scrapped; Sam Rami & Tobey Maguire & Cast Out; Franchise Reboot for 2012". Deadline.com. January 11, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010. ^ ""Spider-Man" Film Gets Reboot; Sam Raimi, Tobey Maguire Out". Zap2It.com. January 11, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010. ^ "Maguire, Raimi out of 'Spider-Man' franchise". Associated Press. Yahoo! Movies. January 11, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010.[dead link] ^ DiOrio, Carl (2010-02-10). "'Spider-Man' reboot will be in 3D". Hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved 2010-03-20.[dead link] ^ Leins, Jeff (2010-07-01). "Andrew Garfield is the New Spider-Man". NewsinFilm.com. Retrieved 2010-07-01. ^ Lustig, Jay. "Spider-Man: Turn off the Dark". New Jersey On-Line. January 18, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2011. ^ Gans, Andrew. "Reeve Carney, Jennifer Damiano, Patrick Page to Star in Spider-Man; Performances Begin in November". Playbill.com, August 10, 2010 ^ "SpidermanBroadway.Marvel.com". Spidermanonbroadway.marvel.com. Retrieved 2010-04-10. ^ Hetrick, Adam. "Troubled Spider-Man Turn Off the Dark Delays Broadway Opening Again". Playbill.com. January 13, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2011. ^ "Could Spider-Man the Musical be the 'biggest disaster in Broadway history'?". The Week. August 13, 2010 (updated November 4, 2010). ^ "The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters". Empire Online. Retrieved 2009-02-08. ^ "Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens, and Villains Episode Guide 2005 - Ultimate Super Villains". TVGuide.com. Retrieved 2010-10-09. ^ "The 100 Greatest Fictional Characters". Fandomania. Retrieved September 23, 2010. External links  	Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Spider-Man Official website Spider-Man at the Marvel Universe wiki Spider-Man at the Comic Book DB "Venom: The Sordid History of Spider-Man's Black Costume" at Marvel.com Spider-Man at Don Markstein's Toonopedia SpiderFan Spider-Man at the Open Directory Project [show] v t e Spider-Man [show] v t e Spider-Man publications and storylines [show] v t e Spider-Man in popular media [show] v t e Spider-Man films [show] v t e New Avengers [show] v t e Symbiote family and hosts [show] v t e Daredevil [show] v t e Fantastic Four [show] v t e Spider-Woman View page ratings Rate this page What's this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional)  Submit ratings Categories: Marvel Comics superheroesSpider-ManCharacters created by Stan LeeCharacters created by Steve DitkoChild superheroesComics by Stan LeeComics by Steve DitkoComics adapted into filmsFictional adopteesFictional characters from New York CityFictional characters who have made pacts with devilsFictional characters with precognitionFictional orphansFictional photographersFictional reportersFictional schoolteachersFictional scientistsFictional vigilantesFilm charactersMarvel Comics characters who can move at superhuman speedsMarvel Comics characters with superhuman strengthMarvel Comics martial artistsMarvel Comics mutatesComics characters introduced in 19621962 comic debuts Log in / create accountArticleTalkReadView sourceView history  Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox Print/export Languages العربية Asturianu Azərbaycanca বাংলা Български Brezhoneg Català Česky Dansk Deutsch ދިވެހިބަސް Eesti Ελληνικά Español Esperanto Euskara فارسی Français Galego 한국어 हिन्दी Hrvatski Bahasa Indonesia Íslenska Italiano עברית Basa Jawa ქართული Latviešu Lietuvių Magyar മലയാളം Bahasa Melayu Nederlands नेपाली 日本語 Nnapulitano ‪Norsk (bokmål)‬ Occitan O'zbek ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ភាសាខ្មែរ Polski Português Română Русский Sardu Shqip Simple English Slovenčina Српски / Srpski Suomi Svenska ไทย Türkçe Українська Tiếng Việt 粵語 中文 This page was last modified on 28 February 2012 at 18:22. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Contact us Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersMobile view

Spider Jew by Sean Trank

For the last week I have dreamt that I had super powers.  The dreams mostly consist of powers such as flying, shooting sparks out of my hand, or good ol’ telekinesis.  The dream always ends the same, I blow up the bad guy and get the girl and become president or retire into a jungle.  I often think about why I dream so often with this theme and if it means anything about myself in reality.  According to the dream dictionary, dreaming that you are a superhero or that you have special powers could mean that you are feeling very good about yourself, or you wish you felt better about yourself. Another interpretation is that to dream that you are a superhero, represents your above-average talents, ideas, and other hidden abilities that you may not realize you possessed.  My construal is that every super hero story is about the guy who was ordinary and then become extraordinary and this is a major part of my core and design.

How many kids feel like the underdog in Jr. High and know that they have so much more to offer, yet no one seems to see their strengths.   I recall the passage in 1st Timothy 4: 12 “Let no one despise you for your youth, but set the believers an example in speech, in conduct, in love, in faith, in purity.”  Every hero has a similar story in that sooner or later they are told what they can’t do and against all odds they do the impossible and it usually turns out that the one who told them what they couldn’t do is the arch villain.  The truth is, you are the hero in your story and the Villain takes many shapes.

Bazaaro Superman, we all remember that guy, superman’s deformed clone that thought he was doing good in his reality but in the end did more harm than good.

Proverb 16:25 There is a way that seems right to a man, but its end is the way to death.

Your flesh is your closest enemy, like an evil Siamese twin you wrestle with everyday.  The battle rages on, some days you are the victor after putting your twin in the sleeper hold, but other days you face defeat after your twin gives you the slip and delivers a low blow.  This is only natural, I mean without conflict there is no pathos, no reason to build the newest Iron man suit with a triangle glow stick instead of that old circular one.

The world is against you.  1 John 5: 5: Who is it that overcomes the world except the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God?

When I think of the world, I think of Darth Vader as he represents the people who make up this world and their popular options.   Vader seemed like a no hope situation until the very end when he chose to put on love and save his whiney little boy.  The dark side is where his mind had dwelt for most of his life and during his time alive he dedicated his time to serve the dark side and to crush the rebellion.  However, this was not always the case.  Before he was Vader, he was Anakin the Jedi in training, but he was enticed and deceived to join the dark side.  Like a get rich quick scheme or sex before marriage, two traps of the world.  As Anakin ventured to the dark side he sank deeper and deeper into dependency until he needed it to live.  The world can transform you into the most despicable, shallow, and empty person until you are unrecognizable.

About Sean Trank

My name is Sean Trank. I aspire to help those who want to succeed. I am a promoter of many things and I love making good ideas known. I also have a unique sense of humor that has been honed and shaped from having a Jewish Christian background...or maybe it is because my childhood house had lead-based paint. Ok so please explore this website .

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s